Addressing Police brutality as a form of Human Right Abuse in Nigeria: A study of government efforts (Published)
Police brutality have attracted the attention of researchers and human right stakeholders, into the causes of brutality and dimensions of manifestation. In Nigeria, as in many other countries of the world, police brutality has gone as far as taking lives, and casting a shadow of doubt on the professed responsibility of the government in protecting her citizens. In Nigeria, a case at hand is the EndSARS saga which is a consequent action of the youth to end police brutality, yet leading into more brutality and massacre. This study therefore, in addition to knowledge have explored the efforts of the government in addressing police brutality in Nigeria. The study’s objectives were to ascertain the relationship between police daily routine and human right abuse in Nigeria; to assess the effects of police brutality on its victim in Nigeria; to evaluate the accountability of government in proposed measures in addressing police brutality in Nigeria; and to score the effectiveness of the measures employed by the government in addressing police brutality in Nigeria. Concentrating the study in Owerri, Imo State with a total population of 945,046 in 2022. The study draws a sample of 381 respondents who supplied data through a 20-item questionnaire. The collected data were subjected to descriptive analysis using percentages, standard deviation and mean scores. The study’s finding shows that there is a significant relationship between police daily routine and human rights abuse; there is significant effect of police brutality on the victims; the government have not been accountable to their proposed measures for addressing police brutality; and those proposed measures are therefore not effective in addressing police brutality in Nigeria. Therefore, the study recommended that government should first revamp the economy to increase standard of living of its citizens, make policies with interest in solving problems and not pleasing the public, and train and retrain the police officers especially on the UN Principle on the use of force and firearms. police brutality, human right abuse, Nigeria, government efforts
This paper examined the impact of income inequality and healthcare expenditure on economic performance in Nigeria over the period 1990-2020 using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) estimation technique. The findings reveal the existence of a positive and a statistically significant relationship between income inequality and economic performance as well as health care expenditure and economic performance in Nigeria. In addition, the results show that health care is a necessity rather than a luxury in Nigeria. The study recommends that government should implement programs and policies that will alleviate the inequality in income distribution as well as appropriate policies at the macroeconomic level targeted at public health expenditure to enhance economic performance
Agriculture and manufacturing activities is as old as production of goods and services in African society. In the production of goods and services women formed a sizeable population of the labour force. This has not been an exception in Nupe land. The friendly nature of ecology of Nupe land made it possible for production of ground nut in large quantity that allowed for its utilization in different forms most especially by the women. Thus the plants, the nuts and the shell are used by women in different forms. It is on this premise that the study examined production, utilisation, marketing and consumption of groundnut among Nupe women. The study uses historical research methodology of oral interaction, reconnaissance survey and unpublished and published materials in collection of data and analyses. The study revealed that Nupe women played supportive role in cultivation through planting, harvesting, and separation of pod from plants to processing into different bye products and marketing.
Lately, Nigerians are in confusion on the rationale of paying tax due to the inability of the government to let taxpayers feel the impact of paying tax. These unethical practices have made some Nigerians want to evade tax wholly or partially. All and sundry still limbo in doubt as to whether the tax could ever be flexible or efficient; and if yes, can they deliver the sustainable growth that has eluded Nigeria for decades. This study investigates the impact of tax components in achieving sustainable growth in Nigeria using time series data from 1987-2019 using the ARDL bound testing approach to cointegration to ascertain the long run and the speed of adjustment (Short run) in analyzing the relationship. The result revealed that Petroleum Profit Tax, Company Tax, Value Added Tax and Personal Income Tax have a positive short-run relationship with economic growth (GDP) while Custom and Excise Duties and Personal Income Tax exhibits a negative relationship in the short and long run. This study hereby recommends strong institutional reforms in the department of customs to plug the manifest leakages in other to enable the revenue generated from the unit to reach the desired point to facilitate sustainable development in Nigeria by the year 2030.
Citation: Adewale Mathew Adekanmbi, Amos Dauda, Shallie and Oladimeji Abeeb Olaniyi (2022) Tax Revenue and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Disaggregated Analysis, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.10, No.3, pp.43-54
The study investigates the nexus between financial development, trade performance and growth in Nigeria between the period 1985 to 2020. Financial development, government expenditure, inflation rate and trade openness were used as dimensions of independent variables while real gross domestic product was used as the dependent variable. Annual time series data on our targeted variables were obtained from secondary sources including the Central Bank of Nigeria annual statistical bulletin, World Bank development indicators. The Eview9 Statistical Software was employed to analyze the data empirically. The Unit root test shows that financial development, government expenditure, trade openness and real gross domestic product are all stationary after first difference I(1) while inflation rate was stationary at level I(0). The data were analyzed using the Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL). The results of the ARDL estimates indicate that in the long run financial development and government expenditure coefficients have positive relationships with real gross domestic product and they are also statistically significant. The study recommends amongst others that Nigerian trade performance should be improved through economic diversification so as to reduce much emphasis on oil export and availability of funds from private sector at competitive interest rate in order to produce internationally competitive products should be encouraged. Also, there should be the implementation of monetary policies that would bring about stability in exchange rate, promote trade openness and ensure government purchases that enhances financial development.
Citation: Adeyemo, Oyindamola Olajumoke and Tamunowariye, Chinonso (2022) The Nexus between Financial Development, Trade Performance and Growth in Nigeria, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.10, No.3, pp.1-17
Citation: Emmanuel U. Dim (2022) Abraham the Father of Faith (Gen 12-17) – Challenge To Christians in Nigeria, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.10, No.1, pp.54-63
In Abraham, Israel’s first Patriarch, God begins a new development in his plan of the creation and salvation of the world by specially choosing the people of Israel (Gen 12-50), after the general account of the creation and development of mankind from the beginning of the book of Genesis (Gen 1-11). Abraham stands out in his relationship with God and is thus, for those who believe in God and who acknowledge His self-revelation in the OT, the father of faith. Many Christians in Nigeria today suffer from the crisis of faith which often breeds lukewarmness and syncretism in their actual practice of it – and even outright rejection of the same faith in neo-paganism. The others who try to remain steadfast, are naturally distracted by the negative activities of these other brothers and sisters with whom they are supposed to be professing the same faith. This paper presents the steadfast legacy in the faith of Abraham, the proto-type of Jesus in the OT, as an enlivening challenge to all Christians, especially here in Nigeria. Abraham’s steadfast faith in God, in all the circumstances of his life, challenges the Nigerian Christians of today, as they face all sorts of difficulties in the practice of their faith. It also challenges the institutionalized Churches towards the provision of a sustained catechetical growth for all their members for a more active and vibrant Christian life in our dear country that is today menaced with many religious, social, economic and political problems. To arrive at its goal, this paper employs the exegetico-analytical method of enquiry. In the final analysis, apart from the pertinence of all the points raised in it, this work has the added importance of taking us to the very fertile roots of our faith in God in the person and life of Abraham, thereby helping to engender stronger conviction in the believing audience that would read it.
Financial Globalization and Exchange Rate uncertainty in Nigeria: A Band-Pass Filter Approach (Published)
Exchange rate uncertainty has been one of the many challenges implicated as the biggest developmental and growth obstacle facing Nigeria as a nation. This study estimates financial globalization, output growth and financial uncertainty nexus in Nigeria. The research is carried under the assumption that exchange rate uncertainties are deemed to impact on the volume of export and import trading activities. Thus, we adopted the Pairwise Granger Causality model to estimate the causality relationships among financial globalization, output growth and volatility in exchange rate using a Single Equation Englo-Granger approach. The best lag selection criteria were employed to choosing the best lag for this analysis. We provide a link between the short-run and the long-run effect of the model(s). This study found that they is a positive interaction between financial volatility (exchange rate uncertainty) and output volatility in Nigeria. It shows that as financial volatility such as exchange rate uncertainty is increasing, output volatility will also be increased in the same direction. The government and the monetary authorities should be more focused on the strengthening the exchange rate, since stable exchange rate improves the terms of trade, strengthen the local capacity and increases output growth. However, addressing the heightened risks, including financial and operational risks due to economic recession as well as due to the market reforms themselves have remained the challenges of globalization in Nigeria.
An Assessment of Post-Flood Disaster Risk Recovery and Reconstruction Responses of Urban Households in Makurdi Metropolis, Nigeria (Published)
Flood disaster is increasingly becoming a common occurrence around the world due to unwholesome human activities and climate change affecting urban areas including Makurdi metropolis in Benue state, Nigeria. Given its geographic location in the Benue valley and geophysical characteristics, Makurdi regularly experiences flood disaster during rainy season with the 2012 flood event been the worse with considerable impacts on the lives and properties of urban households. This study assesses the 2012 post-flood disaster risk recovery and reconstruction responses of urban households in Makurdi metropolis. Data was collected from 200 affected households of the 2012 flood disaster in flood prone areas of the town through physical observation and questionnaire administration, and was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. The result of the study reveals different levels of damages caused by the flood in the study area with destruction of residential houses accounting for the highest (30.6%). Post-disaster recovery and reconstruction responses vary among households with low-income households being the most vulnerable and 85% have not fully recovered from the disaster. The study reveals varying nature of recovery efforts undertaking by the affected households in the study area with 38.9% of them rehabilitated their residential buildings. The highest post-flood recovery assistance accounting for 82.4% came from victims’ relatives/friends. Based on the findings, the study recommends for more sensitization of the public on proactive flood disaster risk management through preparedness; readiness, response and recovery/rehabilitation with involvement of all stakeholders in the study area.
Global progress towards gender parity across critical areas of life is still at the disadvantage of women. Women are in a disadvantage position in such areas as the ownership and control over assets, access to affordable credit, social reproduction, to socio-political representation, cultural practices and participation in formal sector of the economy. The consequence of such disparities limits the extent women can exercise choice and make decisions economically, socially, and politically. Therefore, how to flatten the curve and reverse these disparities remains the subject of the subsisting women’s empowerment conundrum about whether others can externally determine empowerment, or if women have to be the agents of their empowerment. What then defines the empowerment framework and understandings of the form that empowerment should take remains debatable. This paper critically reviewed how the empowerment of women has been discussed and conceptualised within development studies, with particular focus on women’s economic empowerment. The paper further looked at issues around women’s empowerment measurement and indicators; identified some frameworks for measuring women’s empowerment. Lastly, the author proposed a conceptual framework within which women’s empowerment might be assessed. To this end, women’s economic empowerment was defined as the extent women exercise control over decisions relating to accessing and use of resources and the resulting household reality.
Mitigating stakeholder conflicts in Nigerian tertiary institutions: The Ignatius Ajuru University and Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic examples (Published)
Several crises in tertiary institutions in Nigeria have been traced to poor policy communication, stakeholders’ rejection of decisions or the management of conflicts. However, while some tertiary institutions in the country often encounter internal crises, the Ignatius Ajuru University of Education and Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic have remained relatively calm. This study investigated the communication flow patterns and decision-making approaches of these institutions, especially since conflicts and crises in many campuses in Nigeria have been linked to poor policy communication or disagreements arising from decisions. Among other objectives, the study investigated the structures that encourage participatory decision-making in Ignatius Ajuru University of Education and Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic. The study was anchored on the Stakeholder theory. The descriptive survey research design was used to study a population of 21, 089 from which a sample size of 375 was drawn. Findings of the study showed that the authorities of Ignatius Ajuru University of Education and Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic involve staff and students of the institutions in decision-making through designated participatory structures. It was also found out that participatory decision-making mitigated stakeholder conflicts in the institutions. The study recommended, among other things, that the authorities of tertiary institutions in Nigeria should create and sustain structures that enhance wider stakeholders’ participation in decision-making in order to mitigate the occurrence and escalation of stakeholder conflicts.