The washing of the feet is unique to the Gospel of John. In John 13:1-17, Jesus washed the feet of his disciples. Scholars have offered numerous interpretations of this pericope in their efforts to provide a better understanding of the pericope. However, putting together the grammatical, literary, philosophical, and theological analysis of some interpretations can be difficult because they do not fully capture the Johannine presentation of Jesus washing his disciples’ feet at the Last Supper. This piqued our interest, and we decided to contribute to the ongoing debate about whether Christians should wash their feet today. This article contends that the Johannine hupodeigma (see v. 15) implies more than an example for imitation, but rather a concrete and fundamental sign of Jesus’ perfect form of love by which Jesus victoriously conquers the world, completes the mission, and offers a part in his life for ‘his own’, thus challenging them to foster servant leadership. The Historical-Critical method is used in this article, with diachronic and synchronic approaches. It addresses literary issues in the text such as delimitation, textual analysis, and an examination of the text’s remote and immediate contexts. The importance of this work lies in the fact that it will add to the existing literature on John 13:1-17 and open up new avenues for future research on the subject.
Citation: Jatau P.D. (2023) Feet Washing (John 13:1-17) as a Paradigm for Christian Leadership in Nigeria, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.11, No.4, pp.1-31
Reconciliation, a Road to Freedom, Unity and Development (Gen 32:3-33:20): Lessons for Nigeria as a Nation (Published)
Jacob and Esau are the twin sons of Isaac and Rebekah. With the active and masterful connivance of Rebekah, Jacob, the younger of the two, deceitfully obtained from their father, Isaac, the final blessing he had intended for Esau, his first son. The ugly result is that, on account of the threat to his life by Esau, Jacob had to flee into exile, to Laban his uncle. However, after 20 years, he had to return to Canaan, at the behest of Yahweh, but had also to confront his otherwise bitter and estranged brother in the process, as narrated in Gen 32:3-33:20. Thus, although Jacob was initially highly dreadful of this encounter, the two brothers admirably reconciled during that meeting thereby leaving an example of perennial worth to all human beings. This article deeply dwells on this narrative in order to bring out its important details and emphases. The method employed in the study is sociological-theological. This is augmented with the Historical Critical Method of Exegesis so as to interpret the text under study. Through these methods, this paper highlights the fact that even though reconciliation is often difficult to arrive at in the face of conflicts, it is ultimately a blessing and greatly rewarding when achieved. On that score, it becomes highly recommended that all toe the praise-worthy line of these two brothers in the face of conflicts so as to avoid war or aggression which is its unwholesome alternative. This recommendation is especially pertinent to Nigeria, the fast-crumbling giant of Africa, where Christians, especially those in government, are particularly called upon to help to engender this national spirit among its citizens – an aspect that has sadly eluded them since the country’s independence. Significantly, therefore, this paper is a strong appreciation of the reconciliatory example of these twin brothers, with the suggestion, after going down the memory lane, that it is only such a development that would help to move Nigeria forward as a nation from its present debilitating quagmire and national decay.
The OT Messianic Expectations as fulfilled in the Incarnation of Jesus – Points for Reflection for Christians (Published)
That Jesus is the Messiah is acclaimed and professed by Christians right from the early times. That he is the Messiah who has been expected right from the OT times could also be said to be common knowledge for many Christians. But what this statement actually means as well as its full implications are not clear to many people, Christians and non-Christians alike. This paper, therefore, sets out to explain how the OT messianic expectations are fulfilled in the Incarnation of Jesus, a term that encompasses Jesus’ earthly life, ministry, death and resurrection, i.e. the entire mystery of Christ’s redemptive work. The method employed in this work is historical-theological, augmented with the Historical Critical method, when necessary, in the analysis of pertinent biblical passages. The information is that the people of Israel in the OT were, in different epochs, always expecting a Messiah, a liberator to be sent by God. They associated this Messiah with the successive kings of the Davidic dynasty through the Oracle of Nathan in 2 Sam 7:12, on the one hand, and with other historical and messianic figures, on the other. But after the exile, during the last pre-Christian centuries of Palestinian Judaism, these expectations narrowed down to an individual liberator and ultimately to Jesus, in the NT, as is amply explained in many NT passages. The recommendation is for all Christians to recognize and cherish the depth of our Christian heritage in the OT and in the lives of the people of Israel, a depth which gloriously highlights God’s universal plan of salvation as one. All this would invariably lead Christians to the greater appreciation of their faith and its praxis as well as further enhance Jewish Christian relationship as one commonly founded on a single divinely instituted history of salvation. This work is also a very useful tool for all teachers and students of religion, as well as biblical scholars and researchers, in the pursuit of their various endeavours.
Citation: Emmanuel U. Dim (2022) The OT Messianic Expectations as fulfilled in the Incarnation of Jesus – Points for Reflection for Christians, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.10, No.7, pp.15-30
Citation: Emmanuel U. Dim (2022) Abraham the Father of Faith (Gen 12-17) – Challenge To Christians in Nigeria, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.10, No.1, pp.54-63
In Abraham, Israel’s first Patriarch, God begins a new development in his plan of the creation and salvation of the world by specially choosing the people of Israel (Gen 12-50), after the general account of the creation and development of mankind from the beginning of the book of Genesis (Gen 1-11). Abraham stands out in his relationship with God and is thus, for those who believe in God and who acknowledge His self-revelation in the OT, the father of faith. Many Christians in Nigeria today suffer from the crisis of faith which often breeds lukewarmness and syncretism in their actual practice of it – and even outright rejection of the same faith in neo-paganism. The others who try to remain steadfast, are naturally distracted by the negative activities of these other brothers and sisters with whom they are supposed to be professing the same faith. This paper presents the steadfast legacy in the faith of Abraham, the proto-type of Jesus in the OT, as an enlivening challenge to all Christians, especially here in Nigeria. Abraham’s steadfast faith in God, in all the circumstances of his life, challenges the Nigerian Christians of today, as they face all sorts of difficulties in the practice of their faith. It also challenges the institutionalized Churches towards the provision of a sustained catechetical growth for all their members for a more active and vibrant Christian life in our dear country that is today menaced with many religious, social, economic and political problems. To arrive at its goal, this paper employs the exegetico-analytical method of enquiry. In the final analysis, apart from the pertinence of all the points raised in it, this work has the added importance of taking us to the very fertile roots of our faith in God in the person and life of Abraham, thereby helping to engender stronger conviction in the believing audience that would read it.
Agapate Allēlous . . . (John 13:34-35) Evaluation of Living Out Agapate among Christians in Anambra State (Published)
This work studies how Christians in Anambra state obeys the injunction “love one another.” Anambra state is majorly a Christian state. Love one another, as I have loved you, is an injunction given by Jesus to his followers (disciples/Christians). The love he means here is sacrificial: selfless love. It is this sacrificial love that will prove to the world that his disciples are authentically his followers. This injunction or commandment to love is part of the farewell discourses of Jesus; this is to show how important it is to his heart. This was the guiding principle of the early Christians, but today the greatest problem is that there are dissensions among Christians. These include political, economic, social and even religious dissensions.The commandment of Jesus seems to have been jettisoned or relegated to the background. This work aims to investigate the genuineness of Christians (disciples) with the injunction of Christ who said: “By this, all men will know that you are my disciples”(v.35) and proffer solutions on how to be genuine Christians. To achieve this, data were collected from primary and secondary sources. To analyze the data so collected the researcher employed the Historical-Critical Method of Exegesis since a biblical text is involved. Through interviews and participant observations, the researcher discovers that there are dissensions among Christians in Anambra state which includes political, social and religious quarrels thereby casting doubts on the authenticity of their Christianity. This implies that the present-day followers of Christ no longer embrace the above divine injunction. The study made the following recommendations among others: Ministers should intensify catechesis to bring their followers back to the basis. Christians are advised to settle their domestic, social, and political disputes among themselves instead of court settlement knowing that they are brothers and sisters in Christ. Significantly, this work will be of immense benefit to all Christians in Anambra State in particular and Christians everywhere in general.
Our thinking, feeling and relation with other people impact our belief system. in some societies religious conflicts are not more common but there are some countries where these religious conflicts are that much powerful that they even effect the lives of the people in the society. It is also common practice that usually these type of conflicts arises in the developing and under-developing counties. Developing countries have some other issues to fight on. As far as Nigeria is concerned, this is the country where this conflict is more powerful than any other concept. This paper is about the religious conflicts of the people in Nigeria and its impact on their social lives