Sustainable Peace and Security in Africa: Strategy for Attainment of Agenda 2063 of African Union (Published)
Armed conflicts have become a regular realism in Africa for so long and the continent is predominantly conflict-prone and has also accommodated more than one third of international violent conflicts in the last few years. The resurgence of conflict in Africa after the Cold War is mostly worrisome and disturbing. Despite these challenges and threats posed by conflict in the region, there is a lack of a common approach in terms of proper policy formulation for appropriate prevention and management of these conflicts that occurs in the continent. The presence of violence conflict and insecurity on the African continent is obvious and apparent. Therefore, the trust of this paper seeks to examine these overlapping issues and attempts to provide a possible solution in resolving them. Data were obtained using secondary sources and the data were analyzed qualitatively. The causes of conflict and insecurity were revealed. The paper also observed that the prospect of achieving Agenda 2063 of African Union is profoundly depends on proper mechanisms for conflict prevention, management and resolution in the region. Therefore, the paper recommends among others, that the putting into practice of the African policy on Governance Architecture must be given the required importance as APSA and AGA are two sides of one coin. Whereas AGA focuses on comprehensive questions of governance, APSA places importance on the instruments for conflict management, resolution, and peace-building. These two must work together, as this will not only bring about peace and security needed in the continent of Africa but, will also guaranteed and serve a lead way for the Attainment of Agenda 2063 of African Union.
Reconciliation, a Road to Freedom, Unity and Development (Gen 32:3-33:20): Lessons for Nigeria as a Nation (Published)
Jacob and Esau are the twin sons of Isaac and Rebekah. With the active and masterful connivance of Rebekah, Jacob, the younger of the two, deceitfully obtained from their father, Isaac, the final blessing he had intended for Esau, his first son. The ugly result is that, on account of the threat to his life by Esau, Jacob had to flee into exile, to Laban his uncle. However, after 20 years, he had to return to Canaan, at the behest of Yahweh, but had also to confront his otherwise bitter and estranged brother in the process, as narrated in Gen 32:3-33:20. Thus, although Jacob was initially highly dreadful of this encounter, the two brothers admirably reconciled during that meeting thereby leaving an example of perennial worth to all human beings. This article deeply dwells on this narrative in order to bring out its important details and emphases. The method employed in the study is sociological-theological. This is augmented with the Historical Critical Method of Exegesis so as to interpret the text under study. Through these methods, this paper highlights the fact that even though reconciliation is often difficult to arrive at in the face of conflicts, it is ultimately a blessing and greatly rewarding when achieved. On that score, it becomes highly recommended that all toe the praise-worthy line of these two brothers in the face of conflicts so as to avoid war or aggression which is its unwholesome alternative. This recommendation is especially pertinent to Nigeria, the fast-crumbling giant of Africa, where Christians, especially those in government, are particularly called upon to help to engender this national spirit among its citizens – an aspect that has sadly eluded them since the country’s independence. Significantly, therefore, this paper is a strong appreciation of the reconciliatory example of these twin brothers, with the suggestion, after going down the memory lane, that it is only such a development that would help to move Nigeria forward as a nation from its present debilitating quagmire and national decay.
Causes and Effects of Marital Conflict in Agbado Oke Odo and Ifako Ijaye Local Council Development Areas in Lagos State (Published)
Marital conflict is a serious issue in many families across the world. Many families have disintegrated and some couples live as if they are strangers because of persistent and unresolved conflicts. Nevertheless conflict and how they are responded to determine whether it will have positive outcome which will give couples marital fulfillment and satisfaction or negative outcome. This study attempts to explore causes and consequence of spousal conflict as well as conflict response styles employed by married male and female in Agbado Oke-Odo and Ifako Ijaiye Local Council Development Area in Lagos State. Both quantitative and qualitatative methods were used in collection and analyses of data. Convenience sampling was also used. The results showed that marital conflict is common to all families. The sources of marital conflict as evident in this study include but not limited to infidelity, sex, and distribution of house chores as well as spouse’s unemployment. It was also discovered that most husbands and wives minimize or stop communicating to each other when they are in conflict. In addition children’s need also suffers. The study recommends that couples seek the help of a counselor when they have issues they cannot by themselves resolve and managing conflict in a way that benefits both partners.
Attitude of Host Communities towards Deploying Corporate Social Responsibility to Manage Conflicts in the Niger Delta, Nigeria (Published)
Conflict is multi-faceted and as it is inevitable in human interaction. It could be productive or counter-productive, depending on how effectively it is managed. The perennial conflicts in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria have arguably yielded unproductive outcomes to the host communities, the oil producing companies and the country’s economy. To the host communities, violent and non-violent reactions have resulted to incidents of ecological devastation, poverty and low level of development, which oil exploration activities have created in the region. The oil companies have been victims of destruction of oil facilities, kidnapping and killing of oil expatriates, all negatively affecting their business. Considering the fact that attitudes of host communities is very important to the success of CSR programmes, this study examined the attitudes of host communities towards deploying CSR programmes to manage conflict in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design was adopted and structured questionnaire was utilized to gather data from 527 respondents selected through the multi-staged sampling technique. Findings showed that CSR programmes executed by oil companies towards conflict management significantly influenced attitudes of members of the host community. And that they were to a large extent satisfied with the CSR programmes executed in their areas. The study therefore recommended among other things that oil companies should carry out regular consultations to find out the needs of their host communities.
The Politics of Forgiveness and Reconciliation: A Way Out of the Dynamics of Conflict and Revenge (Published)
In fact Forgiveness may be contrary to human logic that often yields to the dynamics of conflict and revenge. But forgiveness is inspired by the logic of love. One needs to forgive others as well. The new person is a forgiven person, a person who makes restitution, a person who is honest about failings and weaknesses, a person who is open to the future and who recognizes the dignity of all. This paper calls all men and women and politicians across the globe to a stubborn fact that forgiveness is a key to peace and love which we as individuals and the world in general need today more than ever to effect a genuine and lasting healing and eschew reprisal conflict and revenge.
Ethnography of Communication is a novel approach that relates language with the cultural norms, values and the speaking rules that are specific to a particular speech community. Duranti (1997)1 defines Ethnography as follows:” Ethnography is the written description of the social organization, social activities, symbolic and material resources, and interpretive practices characteristic of a particular group of people”. A number of scholars including Dell Hymes (1962)2 Sherzer (1983)3, Hill and Hill (1986)4 and Saville-Troike (2003)5 worked in the framework of ethnography of communication. Though the studies made by all ethnographers generally focus on the spoken language in a community, it is possible to extend the above frameworks to the analysis of short stories in view of the fact that many short stories are not merely narratives from a third person point of view but involve dialogues between characters. Often the speech patterns, expressions, motivations and the logical deductions they make are in conformity with the particular society they belong to. In particular, the SPEAKING Model evolved by Dell Hymes (1974)6 is found to be highly adaptable to the analysis of short stories.
Rural-Urban Issues and Human Capacity Building in an Era of Globalization: The Third World Perspective (Published)
This study examined the nexus between rural-urban issues and Human Capacity Building. In today’s globalizing world, the issue of human capacity building is very imperative more than ever before. Any country desirous of being relevant in the contemporary world cannot afford to toy with the issue of human capacity building. The high level of competition in the world makes it very inevitable for countries particularly those of the third world to take the issue of Human capacity building seriously because they would lag behind in the scheme of things and would not have anything to offer both at the local and international arena. This situation has brought about a situation whereby countries have been in search of various ways of boosting the human capacity in their various countries. In this endeavour much emphasis is placed on rural –urban issues. It is against this backdrop that this study is embarked upon to interrogate the role of rural-urban issues in human capacity building. Rural-urban migration simply means the movement of people particularly those within the labour force from the rural areas to the urban areas in search of greener pastures. Most times these set of people move to the urban areas to discover there is little or nothing for them to do and in most cases rendered redundant. As they depart the rural areas, they get the rural areas depleted of human resource that could have exploited and tapped the natural resources that abound there. This scenario to a very large extent would negatively affect the country’s development. It is against this backdrop that this study is designed to look for ways of ensuring the building of the human capacity through policies that could bring about the reduction or halting of rural-urban migration. This study is qualitative in nature hence data for the study were sourced through secondary means. Conflict theory was used as a theoretical framework.
The Extent to Which the Lives of Women in Conflict Prone Areas Have Been Affected: A Case of West and North Pokot Sub Counties, Kenya (Published)
War affects women and men differently. Whenever there is a conflict, women and children are the most that are hard hit. This paper focuses on the extent to which women in West and North Pokot have been affected by conflicts. The study was carried out in Kanyarkwat location, Katikatmor sub-location and Kopulio location, Nakuyen sub location of West and North Pokot respectively. A survey research design was used, where questionnaires and interviews were the major data collection tools. Observation was used, to provide information and observe actual behavior of the respondents. The findings reveal that women are largely affected by conflicts reporting displacement, sicknesses due to lack of hygiene, losses of family members and property, poverty, lack of schools and lack of medical facilities as being prevalent. Women end up living in a state of hopelessness and helplessness because of conflict related issues. Peace building capacities should be advocated for, with women being fully involved. The government and other stake holders should look for ways of alleviating the illiteracy rate in such areas and create awareness on the importance of peace building campaigns
RURAL SECURITY AND SUSTAINED PEACEFUL MANAGEMENT OF INTRA AND INTER COMMUNITY CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA: CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE (Published)
The study is geared to investigate sources of intra, inter conflicts and management of security along with the role of religion in sustained crime free and peaceful society in Nigeria. The study showed that improper management of intra and inter conflict has pillaged human environment, fractured co-existence and became economic ruination of many people. The study adopted historical research method. The findings include problems of irredentism among communities, local governments, states, nation and internationals. And that issues bordering on faith, belief and practices generate unity and group sentiment as such becomes volatile. Unemployment is both potential and active source of intra and inter-community conflict in Nigeria. The study also underscored that leakage of information on crime and criminality marred security and peaceful management of communities in conflict in Nigeria. The study stressed that sustained crime free and peaceful society borders on concerted efforts of leaders in governance, churches, law enforcement agencies and the general public along with fair-play, equitable distribution of infrastructure and employment opportunities as well as appointive positions along with citing of projects to various segments in Nigerian society.
POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN NORTHERN NIGERIA (Published)
The study analyses the Poverty Alleviation Programmes as an alternative to Peace and Conflict Resolution in Northern Nigeria; it links the frequency of Conflicts (insecurity) in the region the incidence of absolute and abject poverty. The study predominantly utilized secondary data. In the final analyses, it is shown that conflicts in the region are traceable to poverty. The study concludes that, peace, stability and security is the foundation for achieving the socio-economic development; therefore, preventing conflict, resolving conflict and for peace to be built, poverty has to be alleviated or eradicate the poverty tension that breeds ground for conflict, which requires a genuine commitment for poverty alleviation programmes and involvement of constituents people at every level–design, implementation and monitoring of poverty reduction programs