International Journal of Education, Learning and Development (IJELD)

EA Journals


Contributions of the School in Teaching and Learning of Norms and Values in Nigeria (Published)

The paper examined the contributions of the school as an agent of socialization in the teaching and learning of norms and values which are two essential ingredients that can make a society secure and safe. It is revealed in the paper that, the current status of high crime waves as witnessed in society (i.e youth restiveness, examination malpractice, bribery and corruption, human trafficking drug abuse, banditry, kidnappings) among others, could be minimised if not eradicated when the school effectively and efficiently contributes its role. Teaching democratic principles such as: rule of laws, due process, liberty, peaceful coexistence, tolerance, teaching the need to appreciate the virtue of hard work as against the get rich quick syndrome among others, are some of the ways the school contributes to the teaching and learning of norms and values in Nigerian.

Keywords: Learning, School, Teaching, Values, norms

Demographic Variables and Instructional Effectiveness in Senior Secondary Schools in Cross River State (Published)

Citation: Bernard Diwa Otu, Caroline Iserom  Ita ,  Alfred Denis Oyama , Henrietta Osayi Uchegbue (2022) Demographic Variables and Instructional Effectiveness in Senior Secondary Schools in Cross River State, International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, Vol. 10, No.3, pp.1-15

The main purpose of this study was to investigate on how Mathematics teachers’ demographic variables could influence their instructional effectiveness in Senior secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, two research hypotheses were generated to direct the study. Literature review was done according to the variables and hypotheses for the study to facilitate the discussion of findings. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. Purposive sampling technique was used by the researcher, were all the members in the population were selected. The questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection. The data were collected personally by the researcher and the assistants. To test the hypotheses formulated to direct the study, the independent and dependent variables were identified. Independent t-test and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were considered most appropriate to test the hypotheses for the study. The .05 level of significance was used for the statistical testing of each of the hypothesis for the study. The result of the analysis indicated that educational qualification and teaching experience significantly influence instructional effectiveness of Mathematics teachers. Based on the conclusion of the study it was recommended that Government should organize regular seminars and workshops for all the Mathematics teachers in secondary schools, irrespective of their qualification towards effective utilization of instructional materials and methods of teaching.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Instructional, School, Variables, demographic

Work Stress And Job Satisfaction Among Efl Teachers Working In Kuwait Public Schools (Published)

The focus of the study is to measure the stress and job satisfaction among EFL Teachers working in public schools in Kuwait. Several research questions were introduced to examine the relationships of the research variables. These questions and the hypotheses were as follow: (a) What is the average level of job satisfaction expressed by EFL teachers working in public schools in Kuwait? (b) Is there a gender difference in the average satisfaction among expressed EFL teachers working in public schools in Kuwait? and (c) What are the most predictable factors to job satisfaction among expressed EFL teachers working in public schools in Kuwait? Teachers were administered the modified Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). This study indicates that Kuwait EFL teachers were either dissatisfied with their job due to their work stress environment or exposure to their job and supervision requirements. Areas such as leadership and peers, school infrastructure, the school’s relationship with its local community, workload, staff supervision, class size, school communication networks, and ability utilization were the most satisfying areas reported. Meanwhile, compensation, school policies, and supervision-human relations were least satisfied in this study. A replication study involving a larger sample of males would be useful to add to our empirical database in this area.

Keywords: EFL, Job Satisfaction, Kuwait, School, Stress, Teachers

Nature School Learning Model (Case Study at the School of Universe, Lebak Wangi Village, Parung District, Bogor Regency) (Published)

This study aimed to: (1) examine the nature school learning model at the School of Universe, Lebak Wangi Village, Parung District, Bogor Regency, (2) analyze the factors supporting the success of the learning model at the School of Universe, Lebak Wangi Village, Parung District, Bogor Regency. This study used a qualitative approach with a case study method. Data collection techniques carried out in this study were: interviews, observation and documentation. Data analysis in this study used interactive models of Miles and Huberman, with steps: data reduction, data model, conclusion and verification. The findings of the study showed that: (1) the learning model in the School of Universe using the spider webb learning model was done by determining the theme. Fields of study in thematic approaches included Science, Mathematics, Indonesian, Social, Green Lab, Cooking, Business, and Morals, (2) the factors supporting the success of the learning model at SD School of Universe were: qualified teachers, the methods used included: exemplary methods, natural learning methods, outbound methods, business methods, adequate facilities and infrastructure, including teacher reading resources to add insight and produce the latest innovations in the field of education, as well as parental supports. The findings of this study were recommended to be applied in conventional schools by collaborating the curriculum with school of universe typical learning model.

Keywords: Bogor Regency, Learning, Model, Parung District, School, Wangi Village, universe

Concept Map and Target Task Approaches as Method Combination Therapy for Teaching Algebra in Schools (Published)

This paper formulated and discussed a Method Combination Therapy involving concept map and target task approaches to teaching factorisation of quadratic expressions to secondary school students (age 15 to 16). The paper considered the Type A and Type B forms of quadratic expressions making clear distinctions between both. The quadratic expressions having been factorised were applied to finding the solutions to quadratic equations. Sufficient activities were presented for both the teacher and the learners for mastery. The Method Combination Therapy is recommended for wider publication and usage in of teaching algebra in secondary schools.

Keywords: Algebra, Concept Map, School, Target Task Approaches, Therapy

Capacity Building Needs of Emotional Intelligence of Self- Management Skill for Highly Innovative School Principals for Nigerian Education System (Published)

The problem of quality education and sustainable development, especially in Nigeria has attracted much attention in all academic discussion, whereby scholars have blamed it on several factors, without recourse to the emotional state of the school principals. Self-management is an important construct of emotional intelligence that has impacted positively on other disciplines such as psychology, medicine, business and others, other than education as seen from the review. This has created a gap in knowledge which necessitated this discussion. This paper therefore addressed capacity building needs of emotional intelligence of self-management, towards highly innovative principals for Nigerian secondary schools. The paper considered only three of its characteristics of conscientiousness, achievement orientation and trustworthiness. It is concluded that, emotional intelligence of self-management be included in educational management and teacher training programmes, to equip this group of learners with the skill, to become highly innovative and creative in managing Nigerian secondary schools, which will certainly lead to quality education

Keywords: Capacity building, Education System, Innovation, Principal, School, Skill

Impact of Instructional Scaffolding on Students’ Achievement in Chemistry In Secondary Schools In Ebonyi State Of Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated effects of instructional scaffolding on achievement of senior secondary students in chemistry in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. It also studied the interactive effects of scaffolding and gender on achievement of senior secondary school students in chemistry. Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The method of data collection was experimental, were simple random sampling technique was applied to select a total sample of ninety (90) students from the ten secondary schools used for the study. The instruments for data collection were chemistry scaffolding Achievement Test (CSAT) for the treatment group and Conventional Instructional Package (CIP) for the control group. Mean and standard deviation were used for the analysis of the data. The hypotheses were tested using ANCOVA at the level of significance of 0.05. The reliability of the instrument was calculated using Kuder-Richardson (K-R20) procedure, from which a reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained. Table 1 presented result on the effect of instructional scaffolding on senior secondary school students’ achievement in chemistry. The result obtained from Table 2 on effect of gender on students’ achievement using scaffolding method proved that the male students performed better than the female students. Table 3, which presented result on interactive effects of scaffolding and gender revealed that there is no significant interaction, as both performed well. The researcher made the following recommendations. Teachers should regularly apply instructional scaffolding method to enhance the effectiveness of their instructions; students should abide by scaffolding method of instruction when adopted by the teacher to enhance retention and long term learning; and the school authorities should on regular basis supervise classroom instructions to promote the application of instructional scaffolding by the teachers

Keywords: Apparatus, Chemistry, Instrumental Scaffolding, Nigeria, School, Student


The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of what mathematics classrooms need to enhance students’ opportunity to learn mathematics. The study looked specifically as role should the school, as a learning community, play to enhance students’ opportunity to learn mathematics at the SHS level. The research was conducted in two districts (Gomoa West and Efutu) in the Central Region of Ghana. The study included an extensive literature survey in order to identify related studies in Ghana and other countries. The analysis was based on quantitative and qualitative data gathered in schools with similar learner demographics characteristics, including both high-achieving and low-achieving schools. The quantitative analysis was based on close-ended questionnaire issued to both students and teachers whereas the qualitative analysis was based on open-ended questionnaire also issued to both students and teachers. A semi-structured interview of Heads of Mathematics Department of the selected schools was also included in the study. The findings of this research indicated that School, in order to improve students’ mathematics learning opportunities, should:- Provide curriculum materials, Organize in-service training for teachers, Improve assessment methods, Extend short mathematics instruction periods, Improve teaching methods, Motivate mathematics teachers and recruit competent mathematics teachers. The conclusion is that, for a country to achieve the expected success in mathematics at her SHS educational level, a critical consideration should be given to the findings of this research with all stakeholders acting to fulfill its respective role.

Keywords: Learning Community, Mathematics, Role, SHS, School

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