Intergovernmental Authority on Development and Regional Integration in East Africa: Achievements, Challenges and Prospects (Published)
This study focuses on the activities of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in promoting regional integration among member countries since its transformation from Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) to IGAD in the 1990s. The data for the study are derived from the secondary sources such as textbooks, articles journals, theses, and other relevant documents both offline and online. The theory of liberal intergovernmentalism is adopted for the purpose of analysis. From the findings, the paper notes that so far, the organization has been able to achieve some objectives, including the establishment of IGAD Climate Prediction Application Centre (ICPAC) which relays reports on climate change to member states every 10 days; establishment of IGAD Women’s Desk in 1994 to Foster gender mainstreaming and promote Women’s participation in IGAD Programmes; mediation etcetera. However, the organization is yet to achieve economic union it proposed in 2009. There are also challenges of incessant conflicts/wars among member states. Equally, the issues of harsh weather conditions-drought and desertification- of the region as well as multiplicity of regional organizations with overlapping membership and functions have equally affected the process of integration among IGAD’s member states. Finally, the study makes some recommendations among which are as follows: Member states should focus more on development programmes that will boost the economy of the region so that the goal of integration can be attained; Member countries should avoid joining several organizations with huge cost implications and concentrate on the ones that can help them achieve regional integration among them; The mediation arm of the organization should be strengthened with proper funding while members should remain neutral during mediation to enable the organization meets it goal of peace in the region, Etcetera.
National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)
Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them. Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.
Challenges encountered by the human resource in the implementation of performance contract in Kenya: A study of registration of persons Kericho district. (Review Completed - Accepted)
The purpose of the study was to find out on the influence of performance contract on public service delivery in the registration of persons Kericho district-Kenya. The study focused on establishing on the challenges encountered by the human resource in the department as one of the study objectives in the implementation of performance contract in the enhancement of public service delivery using the 2011-2012 service delivery period as the reference point. Performance contracts being a new tool of service delivery focuses on efficiency, effectiveness, transparency, accountability and inclusiveness in terms of the discussed, projected and agreed targets to be realized within a given time frame of the service delivery appraisal period. The study adopted survey design method from a sample size of (220) respondents who were purposefully and randomly identified. Envisaged data was collected by use of questionnaires structured in Likert scale system. The study adopted and enhanced (2012) Vroom’s theory of motivation (1964) to underpin the same as it was viewed to have some sentimental attachments to the human resource in terms of motivation upon successful attainment of the projected performance targets as compared to other related theories such as Rosseau’s (1994) psychological contract theory which was viewed as being verbally transmitted and legally unbinding. Collected data was sorted out, cleaned, coded and analyzed by using statistical packages of social scientists program (SPSS). The analysed data was qualitatively and quantitatively expressed and its findings graphically presented. Based on the study objective, study findings pointed out that the human resources and potential national identity card stakeholders encountered varieties of challenges when implementing the requirements and principles of performance contract in the enhancement of public service delivery in their service delivery entry points as further explained and pointed out in the study findings. From the study findings, it was recommended that challenges encountered by the human resource when implementing performance contract in the area of study be aggressively and expeditiously addressed by the authorized agencies so as to realize the projections and objectives of performance contract terms in relation to effective and efficient public service delivery to various stakeholders as envisaged in the said department’s service delivery citizens charters.