Yemeni conflict is a power dominance between local tribes and the government, has been globalized by the participation of external countries. The coalition intervention launched by Saudi Arabia in early 2015, which attempted to reduce the Houthi rebels, has exacerbated the crisis. In addition, the conflict has become a proxy battleground between Saudi Arabia and Iran. The purpose of this study is to examine the elements that entice Iran to become involved in the Yemen crisis by helping the Houthi. This paper will also emphasize Iranian meddling and its ramifications for Yemen and Saudi Arabia’s security. The study suggests that Shiism, anti-imperialism towards both the United States and Israel, and anti-Wahhabism are variables that encourage Iran to support the Houthis. In addition, Iran’s engagement in Yemen is motivated by its desire to further its political and ideological national goals.
Citation: Alshammari S. and Daud S. (2022) The Iranian Role in The Republic of Yemen and Peace Prospection, Global Journal of Political Science and Administration, Vol.10, No.5, pp.22-32
The paper discusses the Iranian interference and its implications on Security of Yemen and Saudi Arabia. This research paper attempts to shed light on the reality of the local and regional conflict in Yemen, and its impact on Yemeni civil peace and regional security such Saudi Arabia. It also reveals the real goals of the regional states participating in this conflict, whether directly or indirectly. In addition, the paper presents the means and methods used by the regional powers to extend their hegemony over Yemen, and among those methods are feeding the conflict between the components of Yemeni society by supporting the parties to the conflict. The study also shows how violence has become the only means for some regional countries to achieve their strategic, economic and ideological goals, and it reveals the negative role of Yemeni elites and forces, and how these elites helped regional powers to control the country’s economic imitators and others.
Citation: Saad Alshammari and Sity Oaud (2022) The Iranian Interference and Its Implications on Security of Yemen and Saudi Arabia, Global Journal of Political Science and Administration, Vol.10, No.5, pp.1-9
Arms Conflicts, Community Safety, Security and Reintegration Challenges in Madagali Local Government Areas of Adamawa State, Nigeria (Published)
Since 2009 the North east of Nigeria has been engulfed in arms struggles by the Boko Haram insurgents. This menace has brought serious setbacks to the socio-political and economic development of the region. The three states mostly affected by recurrent and pervasive violence are Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY). The Federal and States governments concerned responded swiftly to this menace through military operations and humanitarian interventions through the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA). This study therefore examines Arms Conflicts, community safety, security and Reintegration challenges in areas affected by the Insurgency in Madagali local government Areas of Adamawa State, Nigeria. The study used a combination survey, observation and available documents. The paper clearly established that: peace is progressively returning to some communities in the studied conflict area as evident in the gradual return of economic and social activities with the last violent attack on the community being in 2018 even though neighbouring communities are still experiencing attacks from the Boko-haram insurgents. Similarly, there are new emerging trend in the conflict dynamics particularly the emergence of new crimes such as kidnapping for ransom, abduction, drug abuse and trafficking, cattle rustling, rape and other forms of sexual and gender based violence in the community. The paper established that communities in Madagali are in urgent need of critical infrastructures such as water, electricity, doctors, health services, humanitarian support and employment opportunities. In addition the study revealed that although humanitarian support and assistance exist, such interventions are inadequate for the large population of IDPs and host community and the process of sharing is marred by irregularities, sharp practices and favouritism that tend to deepen exclusion and generate tension. That the community has shown commitment to peace building, social cohesion and reintegration by demonstrating willingness to accept and reintegrate those associated with the insurgents. In particular, those who were forced into joining the insurgents but have re-joined the community or those that had undergone the de-radicalisation process through participation in the safe corridor programme of the government. The study recommended among others: the need for the Federal government of Nigeria to expand and consolidate the operational capacity of the security architecture in the counter insurgency through, recruitment of additional personnel, weapon upgrade, and motivation and above all provide logistic support to the relevant agencies
Citation: Manpa’a Aliyu Musa (2022) Arms Conflicts, Community Safety, Security and Reintegration Challenges in Madagali Local Government Areas of Adamawa State, Nigeria, Global Journal of Political Science and Administration, Vol.10, No.4, pp.21-45
Respect for and Protection of Human Rights: An Imperative for Peace, Security and Development in Liberia (Published)
This Article analyses the role human rights culture plays in ensuring peaceful, secure and developed society, using Liberia as a case study. While it posits that human rights is subject to contestable philosophical underpinnings that there is seldom a universal consensus on its meaning, it adopts the United Nations definition which combines the perspectives of the natural law and legal positivism to form what it terms ‘inclusive legal positivism’. It accordingly defines human rights as those global standards of morality that are inherent in human beings by virtue of their humanity and protected by national governments and comity of nations through national laws and treaties. It argues that respecting the dignity of the human person is a recipe for peace, which in turn will enhance national security and sustainable development in the country. Example is when the State alleviates poverty which creates inequality and non-discriminatory tendencies, human rights is advanced, peaceful society is enthroned which can lead to development. It concedes that Liberia has adequate normative framework to respect human rights, but analysis of the three human rights obligations of Government namely – to respect, to protect and to fulfil human rights indicates that non-state actors like Liberia National Bar Association (LNBA) have crucial role to play in translating the dry letters of human rights in the constitution and other regional and international treaties into veritable tools that will improve the lives and dignity of Liberians and residents alike including the women folks. It concludes that respect for human rights is indispensable for sustainable Peace, National Security and Development in any given society and calls on Liberian government to put in place structures and systems that are responsive in respecting and protecting human rights.
Prior to the enactment of the ECOWAS Protocol on free movement, people move from one location to another, there was little or no regards for the artificial borders created by the colonial powers. The vision of the ECOWAS is to create a borderless region where the population will have access to the abundant resources and, able to exploit same through the creation of opportunities under a sustainable environment. Nevertheless, the unrestricted free movement of people in the sub-region resulted to situation of tension among citizens of the receiving country and migrants especially in places where migrants dominate trade and labour. The regimes that are rather weak can become destabilized under such tensions thereby resulting to free flow of criminalities. The challenges of the Protocol have not helped the security landscape of the sub-region even though ECOWAS prides itself as the first region in Africa with the free movement initiative, the Protocol is poorly implemented constituting more security concern than boosting regional trade and economic development. Despite these challenges and threats posed by border insecurity, there is a lack of a common approach in terms of policy formulation, especially from the direction of the government. Therefore, it is on this note the paper seeks to examine these overlapping issues and hold attempts to provide a possible solution in resolving them. Data were obtained using secondary sources and the data were analyzed qualitatively. The paper observed that the prospect of achieving effective border security was truncated due to unrestricted free movement of people and improper implementation of ECOWAS protocol in the sub-region. This uncontrolled and unmanaged border has resulted to infiltration of terrorists/insurgency, loss of government revenue, smuggling or trafficking of illegal goods among others. The paper further revealed that the issue of corruption, poor technological gadgets, and porous nature of the borders among others serve as strong challenge to effective border management in the region. Therefore called for a Paradigm Shift in achieving effective border management to include adequate provision of funds, use of modern technological gadgets, adequate training of security personnel, strengthening of Multinational Joint Task Force among others.
The Arab Spring and Syria Security (Published)
The article discussed the Arab Spring and the uprisings it brought to leading to the overthrow long-serving regimes Syria. The article focused on Syria by analyzed the disastrous impact the Arab Spring has on Syria, particularly on how it has affected Syria security. The uprising was influenced by anti-government protests by some group of Syrians who were demanding the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad. The impact of the Syrian civil war was the effect it had on regional security through the activities of violent extremist groups which forced majority of its citizen to seek refuge in neighboring countries.
National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)
Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them. Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.