National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)
Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them. Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.
Against the background of scholarly debates and controversies on the subject, this micro study critically examines the much generalized and romanticized influence of the great Benin Kingdom on state formation among the west Niger Igbo. It thereby sets out to fill the gap in the historiography of state formation in the area, with the Kingdom of Ubulu-Ukwu as a case study. The study adopts the historical method of description and analysis, hinged on a chronological framework to posit the Nri-Awka area as the source of the initial stimulus for the peopling, kingship and title systems of Ubulu-Ukwu. It argues that relations with Benin were stimulated by Benin’s needs for the vital services for which Ubulu-Ukwu was famous. These included the security of Benin coronations and the mystical protection of the Oba’s throne, state regalia and the magical paraphernalia necessary for his vitality and rejuvenation. Ubulu-Ukwu, being dynamic, through adaptation and emulation, effected adjustments to its monarchical system. Thus the Benin factor in political and cultural developments at Ubulu-Ukwu was not the result of conquest and imposition, despite a mid-18th century war between the two polities. The study concludes that the tendency to view west Niger Igbo history in the context of Benin domineering military influence and political tutelage which British imperialism encouraged is out of tune with historical reality.
Reexamining India’s Counter Terrorism Strategy (Published)
Terrorism in India is looked at as one of the aspects of maintenance of Law and Order which is a subject matter of federal units under the Indian constitution. Hence the Police Departments of the States which are responsible for maintaining law and order deal with terrorism, which is not enough. Central Government of India and Central Security Forces should be playing an important role in Planning and execution of confrontation with terrorism. But technicalities of the constitution do not make it possible. That is why; Central Government has set up a National Counter Terrorism Centre. It has not yet been put into practice, because of the resistance by federal units. If India wants to manage terrorism in real sense, then it is imperative to consider terrorism as a federal Crime and National Emergency like incidents. In order to prohibit such criminal acts, India needs to initiate a comprehensive internal security like US and Israel.