The study examined the effect of foreign exchange income on financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to ascertain the effect of nominal exchange rate, real exchange rate, and exchange rate on return on asset of deposit money banks in Nigeria. nominal exchange rate, real exchange rate, and exchange rate were the independent variables, while return on asset was the dependent variable. The study adopted an ex-post-facto research design, covering the period between 2011 and 2020. Secondary data were extracted from the annual reports and accounts of sampled deposit money banks in Nigeria. Multiple regression techniques were used for test of hypotheses. From the data analysis, it was revealed that nominal exchange rate has a significant negative effect on return on asset of deposit money banks in Nigeria. real exchange rates have a significant positive effect on return on asset of deposit money banks in Nigeria. However, exchange rate has a nonsignificant negative effect on return on asset of deposit money banks in Nigeria. This implies that among the foreign exchange income variables, nominal exchange rate and real exchange rate can be used to predict return on asset of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study, therefore, recommends that federal money the sources of deficit financing. They should reduce their public debt so as to allow foreigners invest in securities with naira denomination. They should reduce the extent the deplete our foreign exchange reserve because such moves increase the exchange rate, which affects banks performance negatively. The central bank of Nigeria and the ministry of finance should reduce the rate they give out dollars to politicians because it affects our exchange rate and banks’ performance negatively.
Impact of Philanthropic Corporate Social Responsibility on Firm Value of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (Published)
This study examines the impact of Philanthropic Social Responsibility on firm value of listed Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Nigeria. The study was motivated by conflicting findings by researchers on the relationship between Philanthropic Social Responsibility and firm value. The study used the correlational and ex-post facto research designs. The secondary data were extracted from the annual report and accounts of the 11 listed Deposit Money Banks by the Security and Exchange Commission of Nigeria as at 31st December 2021. Data collected was analysed using Regression analysis statistical tool with the aid of STATA analytical package. Findings from the analysis revealed that philanthropic Social Responsibility has significant positive relationship with the firm value of deposit money banks (DMB’s) in Nigeria. In view of the finding the study recommended that Management of deposit money banks (DMBs) listed in Nigeria should give more emphasis on philanthropic Responsibility. The is because of the positive role it’s play in improving the value of the firm.
The study examined board size and retained earnings of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The objective of the study was to ascertain the relationship between board size and retained earnings of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study adopted an ex-post-facto research design, covering the period between 2010 and 2019. Secondary data were extracted from the annual reports and accounts of sampled deposit money banks in Nigeria. Total assets, total deposits, statutory reserves, and number of branches, were the control variables of the study. Multiple regression and covariance analysis were used for data analysis. The covariance analysis revealed that total asset (p-value < 0.05), total deposit (p-value < 0.05), and number of branches (p-value < 0.05) have a strong and positive relationship with retained earnings (80% approx., 78% approx., 64% approx. respectively). Statutory reserve (p-value < 0.05) and board size (p-value < 0.05) have a strong and negative relationship with retained earnings of deposit money banks in Nigeria with the following coefficients Statutory reserve 73% and board size 53% approx. The findings imply that as a total asset, total deposits, and the number of branches are increasing, the banks’ retained earnings also increase significantly and vice versa. On the other hand, as statutory reserve and board size are increasing, banks’ retained earnings decrease significantly. Hence, these variables can be used to predict and make decisions on retained earnings of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study, therefore, recommends that deposit money banks in Nigeria should keep a small or moderate board size since an increase in board size affects their retained earnings negatively.
Credit Risk and Financial Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria: Moderating Role of Risk Management Committee (Published)
The global financial crisis of 2008 and the economic dislocation that followed the emergence of COVID 19 adversely affected financial institutions leading to debt crisis in the Nigerian banking sector. Despite the risk management framework within the banking sector, credit still remains a crucial factor in comparison to other driving factors in the bank, due to its attendant risk and the effect on the economy. This study examined the risk management committee’s role on the effect of credit risk on financial performance of 13 deposit money banks in Nigeria from 2012 to 2021. Finance distress theory was adopted for the study. The study adopted census sampling technique. Regression model used to analyze the panel data. The multiple regression result revealed that credit risk has a negative and significant effect on financial performance. The moderating role of risk management committee revealed that credit risk has a positive and significant impact on financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study recommends that DMBs in Nigeria should continue improving on their risk management policies to enable good credit facility procedures to borrowers, also the board of directors should actively participate in managing the credit facilities to customers.
Effect of Financial Products on the Performance of Selected Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria: 2005-2019, (Published)
This research study investigated the effect of financial products on the performance of selected deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study sought to ascertain whether the various products introduced by the banks in the face of keen competition have significantly impacted on their performances. Secondary data were utilized and sourced from annual reports and Nigerian Stock Exchange fact books. Multiple regression was used as a tool of data analysis. The results from test of the three hypotheses revealed that, mobile banking has significant positive effect on return on assets (ROA), point of sale has positive significant effect on return on equity (ROE) while automated teller machine also have positive significant effect on earnings per share (EPS). The study therefore recommended that, there is need for deposit money banks to heavily invest in technology as this will highly encourage the adoption of financial products technologies and this will influence the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. Banks management should strive to innovate better and cheaper ways of serving customers. With shorter transaction turnaround time, transactions volumes can be significantly increased.
Fraudulent Practices in Nigerian Banks: Implications on the Performance of Deposit Money Banks, 1994 -2015 (Published)
This study investigates fraudulent practices in Nigeria banks and the implications on the performances of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria. Secondary data were obtained from the annual reports of the Nigerian Deposit Insurance Cooperation (NDIC) covering 1994 to 2015 and analyzed using econometric techniques. Data obtained were tested for co-variance using Johansen Co-Integration and thereafter the four hypotheses postulated were tested using Ordinary Least Square Regression (OLS) and Vector Auto Regression Estimates. The study revealed significant negative relationships between fraud variables and bank performances represented by earnings before tax. The study therefore recommended that directors of Deposit Money Banks should invest in cyber controls and also conduct a thorough review of the existing internal control measures in the banks to ascertain the weaknesses of the existing controls and to strengthen them toward checking fraud. Further, the regulatory agencies such as the National Deposit Insurance Cooperation should rise above their present reactive posture of reporting fraud cases and proactively take up measures to monitor and safeguard depositors’ funds in the Deposit Money Banks. The study also suggested a strong synergy/collaboration between National Deposit Insurance Corporation and Central Bank of Nigeria for effective and proactive monitoring and regulation of the Deposit Money Banks to check fraudulent tendencies and by so doing forestall collapse of the banks. Furthermore, the study strongly recommended that all necessary prosecution measures as well as the evidence enactments should be amended and updated by the Federal Government to ensure that fraud investigation and prosecution are sped up for positive results and justice as deterrent to others.
Operational Risk Management and Financial Stability of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (Published)
The series of financial crisis that have been experienced in both the developed and developing countries showed the importance of having well-functioning financial systems as financial crises directly affect the health of a country’s economy. Many banks had collapsed or experienced serious financial constraints both in Nigeria and the rest of the world due to their continuous exposure to severe operational risk events and fraudulent actions and these have continued to be major threat to the banks. This study investigated the effect of operational risk management on financial stability of deposit money banks in NigeriaThe study employed ex-post facto research design. The population comprised twenty-two licensed deposit money banks in Nigeria as at September 30th, 2018. A total sample of eleven deposit money banks were selected using convenient sampling method and data covering 2009 to 2018 were sourced from the audited and published financial statements of these sampled deposit money banks. Certification of the financial statements by external auditors and regulators and the approval by the board of directors confirm the reliability of the data. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.The results showed that operational risk management had negative significant relationship with financial stability of the selected banks in Nigeria (F(3,106)= 24.46, Adj. R2= 0.4091, p < 0.05). Specifically, Non-performing loan to total loan ratio, cost to income ratio and total loan and advances to total deposit ratio have significant relationship on the variables of financial stability of deposit money banks in Nigeria proxied by Capital Adequacy Ratio (F(3,106)= 18.23, Adj. R2= 0.316, p < 0.05), Return on Equity (F(3,106)= 22.52, Adj. R2= 0.389, p < 0.05) and Liquidity Ratio (F(3,106)= 22.45, Adj. R2= 0.389, p < 0.05)The study concluded that operational risk management influences the financial stability of selected deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study recommended, among others, that banks should improve their operational risk management practices and policies in order to maintain sound capital adequacy and sustainable financial stability.
In the history of development of the Nigerian banking industry, it is evident that most of the failures experienced within the industry prior to the consolidation era were as a result of financial dampening that finally led to bad loans and some other unethical factors and financial stability has generated the ever-increasing attention and interest in academic and banking sector in Nigeria. This study examined the effect of credit risk management on financial stability of deposit money banks in Nigeria; specifically assessing the relationship between credit risk management and financial stability and establishing the level of credit risk measures to be put in place to ensure financial stability of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study adopted ex-post facto research design. The target population comprised of 22 deposit money banks in Nigeria licensed by the Central Bank of Nigeria as at November 30th, 2018 from which 10 deposit money banks were purposively selected. Data were sourced from the audited and published financial statements of the selected deposit money banks. The data were validated by the statutory auditors. Descriptive and inferential statistics (multiple regression) were used to analyze the result. The findings revealed that asset quality represented by non-performing loan to gross loan ratio (NLPR), Total risk Asset to total asset ratio (TRAR), Loan Loss Provision to total loan ratio (LLPR) and Total Loan to total deposit ratio (TLDR), all had a significant effect on the variables of Financial Stability which are; Debt-to-Shareholders Fund F (99)=11.17, Adj. R2= 0.2419, p < 0.10, Capital Adequacy Ratio F(99) = 20.77, Adj. R2= 0.0490, p < 0.10, Fixed Deposit Cover F(99) = 8.95, Adj. R2= 0.165, p < 0.10 and had joint insignificant effect on Liquidity Ratio F(99)=1.31, Adj. R2= 0.486, p> 0.10 of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study concluded that credit risk management influenced financial stability of quoted deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study recommended that operators of banks, should pay more attention to those variables of credit risk management in order to improve financial stability by managing credit risk that deposit money banks are facing to improve financial stability and to put in place proper credit management policy to mitigate credit risk and to also improve the knowledge of credit management policy in financial institutions.
Previous studies have examined the effect of financial sector development on poverty reduction. This study is unique by adopting the UNDP broader measure of well-being, the Human Development Index (HDI) to provide an argument for financial sector development process and poverty reduction interrelationship in Nigeria for the period 1988-2017. Stationary properties of the series were tested by the ADF unit root test. The paper uses the Johansen Co-integration test to examine the existence of long run relationship among the variables. Generally, it was found that financial sector development has both positive and significant relationship with HDI used as proxy for poverty level. The result also indicates a significant positive relationship between aggregate credit (AGC) and HDI. This shows that financial sector development which manifests in the ability of the banking sector to facilitate borrowing and investment in income earning assets, and stimulate the private sector, in particular, small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs), impacts positively on HDI. Finding also shows that aggregate deposit (AGD) (deposit opportunities available to deposit money banks) is negatively related to HDI and significant. This perhaps suggests that the volume of deposit mobilization by deposit money banks in Nigeria is relatively low to what is needed to transform the economy as well as the standard of living of the people. Realising that Human development is a desideratum and sacrosanct in poverty reduction, the objectives of policies aimed at further strengthening the banking sector should be people focused.
Financial Reporting Quality and Its Effect on Investment Decisions by Nigerian Deposit Money Banks (Published)
The study investigated the effects of financial reporting quality on investment decision making by Deposit Money Banks in reference to Zenith Bank Plc, Nigeria. Data obtained from the audited annual reports of Zenith Bank Plc that covered period of 2009 – 2016.The study utilised both Descriptive and Ordinary Least Square Regression method with the aid of using E-view 9 to analyse the data. The findings showed that, there was a significant effect of variables of (Financial Reporting Quality FRQ measures as profit after tax, cash used in/ from investing and cash and cash equivalent) on investment. The result also shows that, Financial Reporting Quality has significantly influenced on investment of Deposit Money Banks with (R2 = 0.98; P <0.05). The study concluded that, higher financial reporting quality increases investment decision by Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria.