The study evaluated the effect of firm size on the revenue reserve of agricultural firms in Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to ascertain the effect of total assets, turnover, and the number of employees on revenue reserve of agricultural firms in Nigeria. The study adopted an ex-post-facto research design, covering the period between 2012 and 2021. Secondary data were extracted from the annual reports and accounts of the sampled agricultural firms in Nigeria. A multiple regression technique was used for the data analysis. From the analysis of the study, it was revealed that total asset has a statistically nonsignificant negative effect on retained earnings of agricultural firms in Nigeria with a regression coefficient of -1.153966 and a P-value of 0.7517. However, turnover has a statistically significant positive effect on retained earnings of agricultural firms in Nigeria with a regression coefficient of 4.772568 and a P-value of 0.0002. In line with the findings on turnover, number of employees has a statistically significant positive effect on retained earnings of agricultural firms in Nigeria with a regression coefficient of 8.693119 and a P-value of 0.0440. This implies that firm size has a significant effect on retained earnings of agricultural firms in Nigeria. It was recommended therefore that agricultural firms in Nigeria should manage the trade-off between acquiring assets with the profit for the year and retaining for investment in other operations of the business such as wages and salaries and other overheads. They should engage in promotions and other programmes that will encourage customers to buy their products. This will increase their turnover and subsequently increase their Retained Earnings. Agricultural businesses require manpower, hence they should ensure that they have enough staff to enable them to carry out their business activities effectively which will guarantee profitability and maximum retained earnings.
Retained Earnings, Corporate Governance and Market-To-Book Value of Listed Firms in Nigeria (Published)
The study analysed the importance of corporate governance practices in strengthening the relationship between retention policy and firm value from 2008 – 2018. The study adopted descriptive survey design and used secondary data. The population of the study comprised of 78 listed manufacturing firms on the Nigeria Stock Exchange as at the end of 2018. Purposive sampling technique was used to select firms with up-to-date published financial data and whose stocks were traded on the stock market totaling 56. The data were analysed using table, percentages and random effect estimation techniques. Findings from the analysis indicated that corporate governance index (t = 2.155, p<0.001), earnings per share (t=5.393, p<0.001) and retained earnings per share (t=9.761, p<0.001) were positively and significantly related to the market-to-book value of firms in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that a higher level of retained profit of these firms together with efficient management practices through good governance will affect-their values positively.
The study examined board size and retained earnings of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The objective of the study was to ascertain the relationship between board size and retained earnings of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study adopted an ex-post-facto research design, covering the period between 2010 and 2019. Secondary data were extracted from the annual reports and accounts of sampled deposit money banks in Nigeria. Total assets, total deposits, statutory reserves, and number of branches, were the control variables of the study. Multiple regression and covariance analysis were used for data analysis. The covariance analysis revealed that total asset (p-value < 0.05), total deposit (p-value < 0.05), and number of branches (p-value < 0.05) have a strong and positive relationship with retained earnings (80% approx., 78% approx., 64% approx. respectively). Statutory reserve (p-value < 0.05) and board size (p-value < 0.05) have a strong and negative relationship with retained earnings of deposit money banks in Nigeria with the following coefficients Statutory reserve 73% and board size 53% approx. The findings imply that as a total asset, total deposits, and the number of branches are increasing, the banks’ retained earnings also increase significantly and vice versa. On the other hand, as statutory reserve and board size are increasing, banks’ retained earnings decrease significantly. Hence, these variables can be used to predict and make decisions on retained earnings of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study, therefore, recommends that deposit money banks in Nigeria should keep a small or moderate board size since an increase in board size affects their retained earnings negatively.