European Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance Research (EJAAFR)

EA Journals

Exchange Rate

Foreign Exchange Income and Financial Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (Published)

The study examined the effect of foreign exchange income on financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to ascertain the effect of nominal exchange rate, real exchange rate, and exchange rate on return on asset of deposit money banks in Nigeria. nominal exchange rate, real exchange rate, and exchange rate were the independent variables, while return on asset was the dependent variable. The study adopted an ex-post-facto research design, covering the period between 2011 and 2020. Secondary data were extracted from the annual reports and accounts of sampled deposit money banks in Nigeria. Multiple regression techniques were used for test of hypotheses. From the data analysis, it was revealed that nominal exchange rate has a significant negative effect on return on asset of deposit money banks in Nigeria. real exchange rates have a significant positive effect on return on asset of deposit money banks in Nigeria. However, exchange rate has a nonsignificant negative effect on return on asset of deposit money banks in Nigeria. This implies that among the foreign exchange income variables, nominal exchange rate and real exchange rate can be used to predict return on asset of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study, therefore, recommends that federal money the sources of deficit financing. They should reduce their public debt so as to allow foreigners invest in securities with naira denomination. They should reduce the extent the deplete our foreign exchange reserve because such moves increase the exchange rate, which affects banks performance negatively. The central bank of Nigeria and the ministry of finance should reduce the rate they give out dollars to politicians because it affects our exchange rate and banks’ performance negatively.

Keywords: Deposit Money Banks, Exchange Rate, Nominal exchange rate, Real Exchange Rate, Return on Asset

Fluctuating Exchange Rate and Nigeria’s Economic Growth: A Time Series Assessment of Over Three Decades’ Experience Using Interest Rate and Inflation Rates as Control Variables (Published)

This study examined the empirical investigation of the effect of fluctuating exchange rate on Nigeria’s economy from 1986 to 2021. The specific objective is to determine the combined effects of exchange rate, inflation, interest rate on gross domestic product and the individual effect of exchange rate, inflation, interest rate on the gross domestic product. The data were obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics. The regression analysis to provide meaning to the research through which the following findings were made; this study depicts on exchange rate, inflation rate, and interest rate contribution to gross domestic product. The consequences of this examination have demonstrated that exchange rate, inflation rate, and interest rate are serious determinants of gross domestic product in the Nigerian Economic Growth. The factors (exchange rate, inflation rate and interest rate) when presented synonymously, have performed well regarding economic growth. The finding suggested that exchange rate, inflation rate and interest rate are determinants of gross domestic product. A practical assessment of these dimensions revealed that exchange rate, inflation rate and interest rate were effectively stabilized and they will achieve a greater significant benefit in terms of gross domestic product. The result shows that, the higher stability of exchange rate, inflation rate and interest rate the higher the possibility of gross domestic product of Nigeria, which will definitely have positive significant impact on economic growth of Nigeria.

Keywords: Exchange Rate, Inflation Rate, Interest Rate, Nigeria, economic growth, fluctuating exchange rate

Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Foreign Direct Investment on Capital Market Performance in Nigeria (1981-2018) (Published)

There is a widespread perception that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) aids economic growth in Nigeria evident by various contributions made by researchers on this phenomenon, but these attendant benefits must be transmitted through one of the viable real sectors, and one of such sectors is the agricultural sector. Understanding the linkage between the flows of foreign direct investment to agricultural sector as if affects capital market becomes imperative since the capital market enhances financial stability in the country. Using descriptive analysis, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), parsimonious error correction model, this paper therefore examined the effect of agricultural foreign direct investment on capital market performance in Nigeria from 1981 -2018. Basically data used in this study are exchange rate, trade openness, agricultural foreign direct investment and total market capitalization sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria(CBN) statistical bulletin 2018, The result obtained shows that the inflow of FDI to agricultural sector does not follow a regular pattern as agricultural FDI has long run positive  relationship with capital market performance,   exchange rate has negative relationship with the explained variable, trade openness also maintained a slow but positive relationship with capital market performance. The study concluded that there exist relationship between the phenomenons of the study, based on these findings, it is recommended that there is need for the government to device several means that would motivate the foreign investors to diversify their investment from oil sector to the agricultural sector since it has a positive influence on the capital market performance. Secondly, government needs to redesign the existing exchange rate policy and ensure full implementation of policy that would revive the value of our local currency.

Citation: Eze Gbalam Peter and Okoyan Krokeme (2021)  Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Foreign Direct Investment on Capital Market Performance in Nigeria (1981-2018), European Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance Research, Vol.9, No. 7, pp.20-37

Keywords: Agricultural Sector, Exchange Rate, Foreign Direct Investment, capital market performance.

Effect of Foreign Direct Investment on Exchange Rate of Naira: A Multi-Sectoral Analysis (Published)

This study examines the effect of foreign direct investment on exchange rate of naira. It covers the period between 1990 and 2016. The unusual depreciation of the naira accompanied by the declining trend of foreign direct investment inflows among other things necessitated this study. Ordinary Least Square Regression Analysis was used to estimate the model relationships. It made use of time series secondary data with five explanatory variables (FDI inflows to Agriculture, forestry and fishery, building and construction, manufacturing and processing, mining and quarrying and transport and communication) and one dependent variable (Exchange Rate). The data were sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin, World Bank Data and Journal Articles. Tests that were carried out include Unit Root Test, Co-integration test and Granger Causality test. The study reveals that there is a positive significant effect of FDI inflow to building and construction on real exchange rate; there is a positive significant effect of FDI inflows to mining and quarrying on real exchange rate and there is a positive significant effect of FDI inflows to transport and communication on real exchange rate. However, there is an universe effect of FDI inflows to agriculture, forestry, fishery on real exchange rate and an inverse effect of FDI inflows to manufacturing and processing on real exchange rate. Based on these findings, the study recommends: massive investment of local investors in the agricultural and manufacturing sectors to strengthen the exchange rate of naira and also serious efforts to increase foreign direct investment inflows in the building, mining and transport sectors in Nigeria be sustained and improved upon to have a strong exchange rate of naira.   

Keywords: Depreciation, Exchange Rate, Foreign Direct Investment, Naira, Study, building and construction, inflows, manufacturing and processing, mining and quarrying

Effect of Market Risks on the Financial Performance of Firms in Nigeria (Published)

Business operations are surrounded by different degrees of uncertainties (risks) ranging from market risks, financial risks and operating risks. This study has chosen to investigate one of the components of the risks (market risk) and to ascertain how the risks affect the activities of firms in Nigeria. Four hypotheses were formulated in line with the objectives of the study. The study employed causal research design and used secondary data. The research covers the twelve (12) firms listed under Oil and Gas sector on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Secondary data were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the financial statements of the firms which spanned from 2014 to 2018. The data were analysed with descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression analysis. The results therefrom indicate that exchange rate has significant effect on both ROA and ROE of Oil and Gas firms. Additionally interest rate has significant effect on ROE and insignificant effect on ROA. More results show that commodity price change has no significant effect on both ROA and ROE, also equity price change has no significant effect on ROA and ROE of firms in Oil and Gas sector in Nigeria. The study recommends among other things that the firms should adopt the use of hedging to control exchange rate changes and government should maintain a low interest rate that will aid firms increase their profitability.

Keywords: Exchange Rate, Market Risk, Oil price

Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Development in Nigeria (Published)

This study was carried out to ascertain the impact of foreign direct investment on economic development in Nigeria between 1981 and 2018. Data employed for this study was elicited from World Bank Data Base-World Developmental Indicators of 2018 and Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin of 2018. This study employed gross fixed capital formation as proxy for economic development in Nigeria, and exchange rate was employed as a controlled variable while data on foreign direct investment inflow to Nigeria was adopted as the explanatory variable. This study employed Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model to analyze data; other diagnostic tests such as: stability test, Auto correlation test, Heteroskedasticity test and Breusch-Godfrey Serial Correlation LM test were also carried out and they confirmed the validity and reliability of the model employed. The inferential results pointed out that foreign direct investment impacted positively but insignificantly on economic development in Nigeria between 1981 and 2018. These results also conform to apriori economic expectations. The study recommended that government of Nigeria should provide enabling environment that will be conducive for doing business, so as to attract additional inflow of foreign direct investment. Government can provide enabling business environment by provision of steady supply of electricity and ameliorating or exterminating insurgent activities in the country and restore confidence of investors to come into Nigeria and invest, when this is done, the volume of foreign direct investment into Nigeria would increase and would enhance exports thereby reducing exchange rate.

Keywords: Economic Development, Exchange Rate, Foreign Direct Investment, gross fixed capital formation and auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) model.

Currency devaluation on the Exportation Revenue: A study of Nigeria, South Africa and China (2000-2017) (Published)

The study examines the impact of currency devaluation on total export revenue in Nigeria, South Africa and China. Secondary data were sourced from World Bank Data Atlas for inflation rate (INFR), exchange rate (EXR), money supply (MS) and total export revenue (TER) for the period of 2000 to 2017 and were subjected to Augmented Dickey Fuller and Philip Perron Unit Root test, Johansen Co-integration and Vector Error Correction Model. The study discovers that EXR, INFR and MS were unable to impact exportation revenue in Nigeria and South Africa while showing strong impact on exportation revenue of China. The result also shows that only China enjoys long run relationship while Nigeria and South Africa currency devaluation variables showed absence of long run relationship with exportation revenue. Thus, the study concludes that currency devaluation in China impact negatively on the export position of Nigeria and South African economies. Hence, the study recommends maintenance of China’s currency devaluation position while Nigeria and South Africa should re-evaluate and re-adjust their currency devaluation procedures to improve exportation revenue.

Keywords: Currency depreciation, Exchange Rate, Inflation Rate, Money Supply, exportation performance

Evaluation of Petroleum Crude Oil Price Volatility on Nigeria National Income and Nigeria Economy (Published)

Oil dependent nations have the potential of economic growth and development in a stable international oil price system. However, the effect of oil price volatility in the evaluation of Nigeria national income and economy is imperative in the face of Nigeria reliance on oil becoming a dream as the negative effect on budget implementation is clearly discovered by researchers. This study evaluated the effect of crude oil price volatility on Nigeria economy and the national income. The study adopted ex-post facto research design. The study covered a period of 22years from 1995 to 2017.  Descriptive and inferential (regression) statistics were adopted for the study. The result showed that oil price volatility has significant combined  effect on Nigeria’s economy (Gross Domestic Product, Gross National Product and Per Capital Income) Adj.R2 of 0.432;0.449 &0.478, F-Statistics of 7.858, 9.488 ,& 9.238 and p-value 0.004, 0.002 & 0.002.Oil price volatility has no significant negative  impact on Gross Domestic Product with β22 of -0.004,R2 of 0.023  t-statistics of -0.630 & p-value  of 0.537;oil price volatility has no significant  negative impact on Gross National Product with β22 of -0.005,R2of 0.027,t-statistics of -0.692 and p-value of 0.498;also oil price volatility has no significant negative impact on Per Capital Income with β22 of -0.004,R2 of 0.027,t-statistics of -0.688 & p-value of 0.500.The study concluded that oil price volatility affects national income and Nigeria economy significantly.  The study recommended that Nigeria should adopt policies that will address negative oil price shocks so that the budgetary system and national income will not be affected.

Keywords: Exchange Rate, Gross Domestic Product, National Income, Nigeria economy, gross national product, oil price volatility

Influence of Trade Liberalization on the Growth of Nigerian Economy: Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach (Published)

This study examined the relationship between trade liberalization and economic growth proxied by gross domestic growth rate in Nigeria. The study specifically assessed whether there is a long run and short run causal relationship running from trade liberalization to economic growth in Nigeria. Trade liberalization was measured using trade openness, exchange rate, total import trade, total export trade and balance of trade. The data for the study were source from the CBN statistical bulletin for the period 1986 to 2014. The study used the Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) technique for data analysis. Findings from the analyses showed that trade liberalization has no long run causal relationship with gross domestic product growth rate in Nigeria. Also, trade openness and exchange rate have no short run causal relationship with gross domestic product growth rate in Nigeria. Lastly, total import trade, total export trade and balance of trade has short run causal relationship with gross domestic product growth rate in Nigeria. The study on the basis of these findings recommends the efficient use of total import trade, total export trade and balance of trade policy measures of trade liberalization in other to maximally benefit from trade liberalization.

Keywords: Exchange Rate, Gross Domestic Product, Trade Liberalization, trade openness

Monetary Policy and the Performance of Nigeria Capital Market: A Time Variant Analysis (Published)

This study examined the relationship between monetary policy and the performance of the Nigerian capital market using annual time series data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The objective was to examine the long and short run relationship that exists between monetary policy variables and the performance of Nigerian capital market. Market capitalization and market turnover was modeled as the function of interest rate, exchange rate, monetary aggregates, monetary policy rate and treasury bill rate. The study applied the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression technique and causality, unit root, cointegration, vector error correction estimates. Findings revealed that interest rate, exchange rate monetary aggregate and monetary policy rate have positive and significant relationship with market capitalization but treasury bill rate have negative and significant relationship with market capitalization. Monetary policy rate, monetary aggregate and exchange rate have positive relationship with market turnover while Treasury bill rate and interest rate have negative and significant relationship with market turnover. The unit root test found the variables stationary at first difference, the cointergration test validates the presence of long run relationship, the granger causality test proved unidirectional causality while the vector error   correction estimates justified adequate speed of adjustment. The study concludes that monetary policy has significant relationship with performance of Nigeria capital market. We recommend that the monetary authorities should ensure effect monetary policy transmission mechanism that will enhance the performance of the capital market.

Keywords: Capital market, Exchange Rate, Monetary Policy, Time Series Monetary Policy Rate

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