International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research (IJEPR)

EA Journals


A Review on the Effects of Crude Oil Spill on Aquatic Life (Fish) in The Niger Delta, Nigeria (Published)

The discovery of crude oil in commercial quantities in the Niger Delta was echoes of riches and wealth to the region and the country, Nigeria but the Niger Delta environment and aquatic ecosystems suffers great anthropogenic pollutions to its biodiversity: birds, animals, plants and crops; fishes and wildlife. This article has reviewed the effects of crude oil spill on the aquatic life (fish) in the Niger Delta, examining cases of oil spill incidences, impacts of oil exploration and exploitation on the environment, management of oil spill on living aquatic resources; biomagnification and threat to biodiversity and food security. It also examined the extent of crude oil removal techniques, and finally proffer possible mitigations and compensations for oil spills incidences in the Niger Delta. We are left with a great question: can gas flaring and illegal refineries be stopped, in the Niger Delta? The Niger Delta waters and the aquatic biodiversity should be protected; the government and multi-national oil companies should launch a clean-up programme on the affected areas/the region, and the management of spills (both of catastrophic and local dimensions) will play a leading role by enacting and enforcing stringent environmental laws that will protect the oil producing communities/areas. Government should be able to identify natural resources (such as wetlands and coastal zones) in Nigeria and monetary investment in environmental protection of vulnerable areas should be seriously looked into.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Bioremediation, Fish, Mitigation, Pollution, Wetland, aquatic resources, biomagnification

Effects of Illegal Refineries On Aquatic Life in The Niger Delta, Nigeria: A Review (Published)

The effects of illegal refineries (“kpo-fire”) and aquatic life in the Niger Delta are reviewed on fish species and ecological systems. The biodiversity of the region has seriously been damaged, killing fishes and aquatic wildlife. Illegal artisanal refining strongly pollutes the ecosystems (air, water, and land); resulting to human ill-health, food insecurities, fish massive mortalities, to mention a few. And, the Federal Government trying to curb the menace, succeeded in doubling the effects by using its military Joint Task Force (JTF) to blow up illegal refining stations (refineries), killing humans, animals, fishes, microbes and generating carbon in the atmosphere, which precipitates as acid rain and sleet to the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Illegal refining is practiced due to failure of the multi-national companies and the Federal Republic of Nigeria government on mitigation and compensation to the Niger Delta, especially engaging the youth on meaningful venture. Nevertheless, there is a ceaseless call by the Niger Delta region; to cushion the effects of illegal refineries. It is crystal clear that lives (humans, animals and fishes) are endangered in the Niger Delta and the illegal refineries needs to be stopped to save the region and its rich biodiversity of flora and fauna forthwith.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Conservation, Pollution, aquatic resources, crude oil, fisheries

Evaluation of Ambient Air Quality at Nekede and Naze Dumpsites, Imo State, South East Nigeria (Published)

Environmental pollution is one potential consequence of lack of proper management of municipal solid waste. The study was carried out to evaluate on-site air quality at Nekede and Naze dumpsites with respect to dry and wet seasons. Samples were measured at six (6) sampling points within and around the field using a series of calibrated hand held air quality monitoring equipment. At each sampling point, nine (9) air quality parameters (particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) Hydrogen sulphide (H2S), Ammonia (NH3), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Methane (CH4), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured.Results showed that PM2.5 and PM10 were detected in all stations of both dumpsites in both seasons. The highest values for all parameters measured were at the dumpsites except for CO which increased as distance progressed off the dumpsite. The CO ranged 0.42-0.94ppm at Nekede dumpsite and 0.20-1.12 ppm at Naze dumpsite during the dry season with the lowest values measured at station NKAQ1 and NZAQ1 with corresponding values of 0.42 and 0.20 ppm. CH4 was less than 0.01 ppm at NZAQ3 in both seasons under study. All parameters measured were higher in Nekede area than Naze except for NH3 which ranged 0.01- 0.15 ppm and 0.02-0.17 ppm respectively for both seasons. Generally NKAQ3 and NZAQ3 which all served as control stations had the lowest concentration of all parameters measured but otherwise for CO. Result further revealed that all parameters except CO exceeded the concentration values stipulated by USEPA and WHO, implying serious health implications in the study area. Results from this study calls for proper waste management system to ameliorate air pollution in the study area.

Keywords: Environment, Imo State, Pollution, air quality

A Review on the Effects of Plastic Debris on Aquatic Life (Fish and Wildlife) in Aquatic Ecosystems (Published)

The deleterious effects of plastic debris on the aquatic environments were reviewed by bringing together most of the literatures published so far on the effects of plastic debris on freshwater and marine lives (fish and wildlife) upon their exposures to the various forms of plastic debris littered by man. Addressing the problem of plastic debris in the ocean is a difficult task but its mitigation is urgently needed. A variety of approaches are required to save the world’s biodiversity from going into extinction. Some of the ways to mitigate the menace are: domestic assemblage and reuse of plastics, recycling of plastics items at the end of its life span, for the reuse in its new production, collection of plastics by hiring children to hand pick plastic waste from the environment for reuse and recycling. Biodegradable plastics should be produced more on the local than the global scale with a marked reduction in the use of plastic packaging.

Citation: Igbani Flourizel; Ayo Grace Opeoluwa and  Ikponmwen Efe Gideon  (2021) A Review on the Effects of Plastic Debris on Aquatic Life (Fish and Wildlife) in Aquatic Ecosystems, International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, Vol.9, No.3 pp.51-60


Keywords: Biodiversity, Fish, Pollution, aquatic ecosystems, biomagnification, wildlife

Effect of Cassava Mill Effluent on Microbial Properties of Garden Soil: Eziobodo Imo State Nigeria (Published)

An assessment of the Effect of Cassava Effluent on Garden Soil was made. Two soil samples were collected; one from a farmland polluted with cassava effluent and, another as an unpolluted sample – free from cassava effluent pollution. The microbial analyses were carried out to investigate the effects of the cassava effluent on the soil microbial qualities of garden soil. Results showed that unpolluted soil sample was normal, while the results of the polluted soil sample showed extinct or absence of normal garden soil microbial fauna with the presence of Staphylococcus aureus which are more harmful than good wherever they are found. However, the presumptive identification of fungi in the polluted soil sample showed presence of Candida sp. The results of the bacteriological count showed absence of coliform bacteria, and the Triple sugar iron and various biochemical reactions showed the absence of bacteria such as Bacillus sp which possess nitrogenise and is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Such genus of bacteria could stimulate plant growth by colonizing plant tissues – external or internal and providing fixed nitrogen to the host plant. Also various species of Bacillus have the ability to increase plant nutrients in soil. Bacillus forms positive interactions (symbiotic) involving bacteria and fungi to stimulate growth in plants. Many strains are capable of inhibiting pathogenic growth or activity directly and indirectly in soil.Enlightenment campaign, detoxifying cassava effluent in accordance with regulatory Standard, appropriate method(s) of environmental friendly disposal of both solid and cassava wastewater are recommended for safe and healthy environment.

Keywords: Cassava effluent, Contamination, Environment, Microbes, Pollution, Soil

Status of Discharged Abattoir Effluent and Its Effects on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Orogodo River, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)

The discharge of untreated wastewater into waterbodies results in water quality deterioration of the receiving waters. This study assesses the impact of abattoir wastewater discharge on the water quality of Orogodo River in Nigeria. Effluent discharges and water samples were collected from river at six points over a 6-month period. Physicochemical analyses were conducted using standard methods. The pH was within a fixed band of 5.56 – 8.04. The downstream biochemical oxygen demand of the receiving river water increased significantly to 75% in July and up to 192% in December. Suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus followed a similar trend. Dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, also increased appreciably. The downstream levels of these parameters were higher than their corresponding upstream values, indicating that the discharge of the abattoir wastewater into the river has negatively impacted the river water. The dilution of the waste in the river water was not enough to reduce them to acceptable levels. This study demonstrates that abattoir wastewater impacts Orogodo River water negatively. The abattoir effluent did not meet the National standard for effluent discharge into the environment leading to cross pollution of the receiving water based on the parameters investigated. This therefore, calls for the need to put an effective wastewater treatment and monitoring system in place to enforce existing legislations to curb water pollution and to safeguard both the environment and human health.



Keywords: Abattoir, Impact, Orogodo, Pollution, Water Quality, physico - chemical, wastewater

Water Pollution Scenario at River Uramurukwa Flowing Through Owerri Metropolis, Imo State, Nigeria (Published)

Pollution scenario of water from River Uramurukwa was investigated.  In both rainy and dry season, 5 water samples each taken from different points were analysed to determine physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). The investigated physico-chemical parameters for both dry and rainy season respectively ranges from: temperature (32-32.4oC, 29-29.8oC), electrical conductivity (15.67-2.00 µS/cm, 7.31-61 µS/cm), pH(5.2-5.7, 5.9-6.7), total dissolved solids (2.67-3.98 mg/L, 3.29-5.33 mg/L) and TSS (4.43-6.64 mg/L,4.88-5.84 mg/L). The analysed major ions were: sodium (Na+)(1.30-1.67 mg/L, 1.76-2.38 mg/L), potassium (K+)(0.819-0.898 mg/L, 0.08-1.89 mg/L), magnesium (Mg2+)(1.13-2.78 mg/L, 1.23-2.86 mg/L), calcium (Ca2+)(22.92-24.6 mg/L, 13.9-43.9 mg/L), nitrate (NO3)(0.91-0.96 mg/L, 0.56-0.97 mg/L), phosphate (PO43- )(0.34-1.65 mg/L, 1.07-2.17 mg/L) and sulphate (SO42-)(23.4-24.8 mg/L, 21.02-29.18 mg/L). The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)(1.2-2.63 mg/L, 1.60-3.33 mg/L), copper (Cu)(0.13-0.79 mg/L,0.001-0.61 mg/L), iron (Fe)(0.091-0.19 mg/L,0.017-1.97 mg/L), cadmium (Cd)(0.002-0.180 mg/L, 0.002-0.025 mg/L), manganese (Mn)(0.08-1.02 mg/L, 0.008-0.091 mg/L).  Temperature, Ec, DO,TDS and TSS were found to compile with WHO guidelines for domestic drinking water except for pH.  Cu, Mn, Fe, in the water samples were all within the recommended guidelines of FEPA and WHO for domestic water use. High concentrations of Cd, Mn and Fe were observed at point 2 while all points for Zn and Pb exhibited high concentration. Water quality Index showed the area is unpolluted and safe for use. No ecological risk was observed except for Cd and Pb. PLI was all within recommended limit except for point 2 during the dry season. It should be observed that the River is polluted with Cd and Pb, this are highly toxic metals which can cause serious health damages even at low concentration.

Keywords: Contamination, Heavy Metal, Pollution, river

Assessment of Pollution Status of Ikwette Stream at Obudu Cattle Ranch Bottom Hill, Cross River State Calabar Nigeria (Published)

The focus of this study is on the assessment of pollution status of Ikwette stream at Obudu cattle Ranch Bottom Hill. Water samples were collected three times in the months of August, September and October 2014. The samples were analogized for physic-chemical and bacteriological parameters. The results of the analyzed samples were compared with the World Health Organization Standard for drinking water (WHO) and (NDWOR).Nigeria Drinking Water Standard. Pollution index (PI) was used the ascertain the level of pollution of the stream. The result indicates that all the stream. The result indicates that all the parameters except chromium (PI of 1) fall with in class 1 indicating no pollution and slightly polluted for chromium which fall with in class 2.

Keywords: Assessment, Pollution, Status, and Stream

Hydrochemistry and Environmental Status of River Owan Water, Edo State Nigeria (Published)

Hydrochemistry of River Owan water and groundwater in its vicinity were examined to decipher their quality status and evaluate the impact of man on the coastal area of the river. Twelve River Owan water and three groundwater samples were subjected to hydrochemical and bacteriological investigations using standard methods. Temperature, pH and electrical conductivity were measured insitu employing pH Testr Meter. The waters were alkaline (average pH of 9.27) signifying a slight trend of alkaline chemical reaction within the system. Electrical resistivity (EC) was virtually less than 1000µS/cm in all water samples indicating fresh water. The dominance of the major ions was as Na+ > Ca2+ >Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3 > Cl > SO42− > NO3. The average values of major ions (mg/L) in the order of dominance were 23.15, 11.56, 9.25, 9.07 and 79.63, 48.92, 29.18, 5.49 respectively. Total hardness of the water revealed that 12 out of 15 water samples were under soft water category ( TH ). All water samples tested positive to bacterial infection (1.60*102 e-coli  8.10*103 Cfu/ml). Anthropogenic activities dominated ionic sources in River Owan while that of the groundwater was mainly geogenic. Much of the natural character of the coastal environment of River Owan has been modified by human activities. Hygiene education of the public must be encouraged in order to ameliorate the unhygienic status of River Owan.

Keywords: Pollution, alkaline, geogenic, major ions, waste dumps

Preliminary Assessment of Some Heavy Metals Pollution Status of Lisikili River Water in Zambezi Region, Namibia (Published)

Good water quality is fundamental to human health and sustenance of aquatic ecosystems. The Lisikili river in Zambezi region, Namibia is a major perennial river which serves diverse economic purposes in the host community. However, it is now receiving pollution threat from effluents discharge and surface run-off from large agricultural lands. Eight (8) water samples were collected at 8 random points within a stretch of approximately 2km on each extremity and median parts of the river. Two major economic fish from the river, tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) and cat fish (Siluriformes) (8 samples of each) were collected using fish net at the points of water sampling. The samples were transported to analytical laboratory in ice boxes for processing and analyses for the levels of Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP: Perkin Elmer Optima 7000 DV). The results obtained showed wide mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the river water; iron recorded the highest level of 2.375 mg/l and arsenic (0.047 mg/l) recorded the lowest level. Apart from Zn (0.259 mg/l) and Cu (0.073 mg/l) with the present concentrations lower than their guideline permissible limits, the mean concentrations of the other heavy metals exceeded their maximum permissible guideline values for the protection of human and aquatic health. Based on the classification of metal pollution index (PI) for water, apart from Cu (PI = 0.03) and Zn (PI = 0.04); all the other heavy metals recorded pollution indices which suggest moderate to strong effect on the river water quality. In both the catfish and tilapia fish (wet weight whole sample), iron (4.926 mg/kg and 3.323 mg/kg) recorded the highest mean concentration while Cd (0.136 mg/kg and 0.078mg/kg) recorded the lowest level respectively. Generally, the present levels of the heavy metals were below their regulatory limits for the protection of human health. However, the fish’s bio-accumulation factors of the metals suggest that they have high potentials to bio-accumulate some of the heavy metals to high levels and this has adverse implication for human consumption. Because heavy metals are non-biodegradable and bio-accumulative in nature which therefore, make their presence in human foods even at very minute levels potential toxins, it is important to monitor their accumulations in the river and fish and advice precautionary measures to limit excessive human exposures to the heavy metals content.

Keywords: Fish, Heavy Metals, Human Health, Pollution, River Water

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