A Review on the Effects of Plastic Debris on Aquatic Life (Fish and Wildlife) in Aquatic Ecosystems (Published)
The deleterious effects of plastic debris on the aquatic environments were reviewed by bringing together most of the literatures published so far on the effects of plastic debris on freshwater and marine lives (fish and wildlife) upon their exposures to the various forms of plastic debris littered by man. Addressing the problem of plastic debris in the ocean is a difficult task but its mitigation is urgently needed. A variety of approaches are required to save the world’s biodiversity from going into extinction. Some of the ways to mitigate the menace are: domestic assemblage and reuse of plastics, recycling of plastics items at the end of its life span, for the reuse in its new production, collection of plastics by hiring children to hand pick plastic waste from the environment for reuse and recycling. Biodegradable plastics should be produced more on the local than the global scale with a marked reduction in the use of plastic packaging.
Citation: Igbani Flourizel; Ayo Grace Opeoluwa and Ikponmwen Efe Gideon (2021) A Review on the Effects of Plastic Debris on Aquatic Life (Fish and Wildlife) in Aquatic Ecosystems, International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, Vol.9, No.3 pp.51-60
Application of Modified-Quechers Method to Fish Tissues for the Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides by Gas Chromatography, With Optimisation Using 14c-Lindane and 14c-Ddt (Published)
In this study, Ethyl acetate modified-QuEChERS method has been applied to fish matrix for the determination of recommended target organochlorine pesticides by keeping in view the importance of fish as food and an important indicator of sediment contamination and water quality problems. Fish and shell-fish monitoring facilitate effective risk management practices for responsible agencies and competent authorities by determining levels of contaminants that may be harmful to human consumers. A simple, rapid and inexpensive method has been proposed for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in fish tissues. The method has been adapted from a previously validated method in IAEA laboratories, for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using ethyl acetate extraction, dispersive solid phase clean-up and gas chromatographic analysis with ECD and NPD detection. The method has been validated on fish fillets at fortification levels 10, 100 and 1000 μg/kg levels, far below the Codex permissible limits in fish tissue. Average recovery obtained for all 12-pesticides at three fortification levels is 90% with relative standard deviation of 8% (n=479). Two radiolabelled compounds, 14C-lindane and 14C-DDT, were used in the initial stages of method optimization and characterization. Limits of detection (LOD) were less than 3 μg/kg for all analytes except dieldrin, which had a LOD of about 5 μg/kg. The method offered is proven to provide efficient recoveries and most sensitive detection limits.
Preliminary Assessment of Some Heavy Metals Pollution Status of Lisikili River Water in Zambezi Region, Namibia (Published)
Good water quality is fundamental to human health and sustenance of aquatic ecosystems. The Lisikili river in Zambezi region, Namibia is a major perennial river which serves diverse economic purposes in the host community. However, it is now receiving pollution threat from effluents discharge and surface run-off from large agricultural lands. Eight (8) water samples were collected at 8 random points within a stretch of approximately 2km on each extremity and median parts of the river. Two major economic fish from the river, tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) and cat fish (Siluriformes) (8 samples of each) were collected using fish net at the points of water sampling. The samples were transported to analytical laboratory in ice boxes for processing and analyses for the levels of Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP: Perkin Elmer Optima 7000 DV). The results obtained showed wide mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the river water; iron recorded the highest level of 2.375 mg/l and arsenic (0.047 mg/l) recorded the lowest level. Apart from Zn (0.259 mg/l) and Cu (0.073 mg/l) with the present concentrations lower than their guideline permissible limits, the mean concentrations of the other heavy metals exceeded their maximum permissible guideline values for the protection of human and aquatic health. Based on the classification of metal pollution index (PI) for water, apart from Cu (PI = 0.03) and Zn (PI = 0.04); all the other heavy metals recorded pollution indices which suggest moderate to strong effect on the river water quality. In both the catfish and tilapia fish (wet weight whole sample), iron (4.926 mg/kg and 3.323 mg/kg) recorded the highest mean concentration while Cd (0.136 mg/kg and 0.078mg/kg) recorded the lowest level respectively. Generally, the present levels of the heavy metals were below their regulatory limits for the protection of human health. However, the fish’s bio-accumulation factors of the metals suggest that they have high potentials to bio-accumulate some of the heavy metals to high levels and this has adverse implication for human consumption. Because heavy metals are non-biodegradable and bio-accumulative in nature which therefore, make their presence in human foods even at very minute levels potential toxins, it is important to monitor their accumulations in the river and fish and advice precautionary measures to limit excessive human exposures to the heavy metals content.