River Water Quality Assessment and Suitability for Irrigation in Northern Sudan Savanna, Ecological Zone of Nigeria (Published)
Good river water quality management and reusing the water appropriately in irrigation agriculture can decrease complete soil and crops toxicity, and serve as a potential feasible options to potable water as well as improvement of natural water resources shortages. This study was carried out between May and July, 2019 to investigate the discharge and irrigation reuse quality of Wudil River effluents in Kano State, Nigeria. The research was conducted in three locations of the river; locations A, B and C respectively. Water quality parameters; pH, COD, BOD5, nutrients (NO3-N, NH4-N and PO4-P), EC and SS were determined in different water samples obtained from the different locations. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses of variance (ANOVA). No significant variations (P>0.05) existed in all the chemical variables among the sampled locations. Comparison of the investigated parameters at the various locations of the river with the standard limit of discharge and irrigation reuse revealed that all the locations achieved compliance except for NH4-N and PO4-P variables that polluted the river using Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and other related international standards. Hence, the need for a drastic move towards both discharge and irrigation water quality improvement of the river as well as environmental conservation through sustainable development and cleaner technology approach within the research area is highlighted.
Status of Discharged Abattoir Effluent and Its Effects on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Orogodo River, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
The discharge of untreated wastewater into waterbodies results in water quality deterioration of the receiving waters. This study assesses the impact of abattoir wastewater discharge on the water quality of Orogodo River in Nigeria. Effluent discharges and water samples were collected from river at six points over a 6-month period. Physicochemical analyses were conducted using standard methods. The pH was within a fixed band of 5.56 – 8.04. The downstream biochemical oxygen demand of the receiving river water increased significantly to 75% in July and up to 192% in December. Suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus followed a similar trend. Dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, also increased appreciably. The downstream levels of these parameters were higher than their corresponding upstream values, indicating that the discharge of the abattoir wastewater into the river has negatively impacted the river water. The dilution of the waste in the river water was not enough to reduce them to acceptable levels. This study demonstrates that abattoir wastewater impacts Orogodo River water negatively. The abattoir effluent did not meet the National standard for effluent discharge into the environment leading to cross pollution of the receiving water based on the parameters investigated. This therefore, calls for the need to put an effective wastewater treatment and monitoring system in place to enforce existing legislations to curb water pollution and to safeguard both the environment and human health.