Modelling Pathways to Energy Transition in Nigeria Using OSeMOSYS (Open-Source Energy Modelling System) (Published)
During the COP26, world leaders reaffirmed their commitments to reduce CO2 emissions and discussed financial support for developing countries. Three important topics were highlighted: international carbon markets, common time frames, and transparency (WRI, 2021). This pledge is crucial for countries such as NIGERIA, who contributes less than 1% to global carbon emissions, yet it is one of the most affected by climate change (Germanwatch, 2021). NIGERIA being the world’s sixth-most populous nation (218.5 on 2022), has ambitious energy plans.
The study investigated the impact of crude oil imports and exports on carbon dioxide emission in Nigeria from 1980 to 2020.The study employed ADF and Dickey-Fuller GLS unit root testing procedure and the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and granger causality test for analysis. Data for the study is sourced from the World Bank’s development indicators and CBN statistical bulletin for various years. The dependent variable is carbon dioxide emission (CO2) while explanatory variables includes oil import (M), oil export (X), gross domestic product (Y) for economic growth, total factor productivity (TFP) for technological progress and innovation, oil price (OP) and nominal exchange rate (EXR). Findings in the study show; First, the contribution of oil import to carbon dioxide emission is positively signed and statistically significant at 5percent level in both long run and short run. Secondly, the coefficient of oil export exhibit positive effect on carbon dioxide emission but only significant in the short run at 10percent level. Thirdly, there exist a unidirectional causation between oil import, oil export on carbon dioxide emission but not vice versa. The study concludes that the positive values of oil import and oil export pose serious environmental threat given the rise in carbon dioxide emission. The study therefore, recommends that the policymakers particularly the Nigerian government need to diversify the economy from oil-based to non-oil based, which will go a long way in reducing environmental challenges emanating from crude oil production.
Citation: Adeyemo O.O. and Robinson M.O. (2023) Crude Oil Exports and Imports and Carbon Dioxide Emission in Nigeria, International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, Vol.11, No.2 pp.1-17
Environmental Quality of Enugu, Nigeria As Impacted by the Primary Air Pollutants in the Area (Published)
Air pollution activities have increased over the years in urban areas of most developing countries like Nigeria. The same has been experienced in Enugu metropolis. This study therefore examined how environmental quality of Enugu metropolis has been impacted by the polluted air in the environment. The metropolis was classified into different neigbourhoods and then stratified into low, medium and high density areas. Samples were randomly collected from these neighborhoods. In determining the residential environmental quality of the area factor analysis (principal component analysis was used to reduce the various environmental quality variables into single factor known as “Y” variable. This served as dependent variable. Primary air pollutants; particular matter, Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide constituted the independent variables as x1, x2, x3 and x4 respectively. Using multiple regression model a relationship between the dependent and independent variable was established. The coefficient of determination in the result showed that adjusted r2=.917, indicating that 91.7% variation in the residential environmental quality could be predicted from air pollution. Health challenges of reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood, chronic bronchitis and worsening respiratory illnesses were identified as some of the effects. Also identified, are acidification of soils, staining of fabrics among others on the environment. Making petroleum products like kerosene available and affordable to all by the federal government of Nigeria, among others have been recommended.
The effects of climate change on building design is a worrisome issue. Flooding, wind storm among others drastically affect buildings in the study area. This sometimes leads to building failures and in extreme cases, complete collapse. This research employed the use questionnaire and also sourced climate data from NIMET. The data collected were analyzed using percentages, Principle component analysis and regression analysis. The research found out that the respondents are knowledgeable about climate change and agree that it affects building designs, therefore must be factored into the design for proper ventilation and illumination as well as increased resilience and durability of the buildings in the study area. The likert table with a cluster means value of 4.01 > 3.0 and associated standard deviation of 0.65 indicates that the respondents perceived climate changes as contributing to changes in building designs. Bu ilding Designs in Enugu metropolis have changed over time. Component II recorded an eigen value of 1.486 and an additional variance of 16.512% bringing the cumulative explanation of respondents perception of climate influence on building designs to 88.183%. The research concluded that there are stages in the design of buildings whereby climate parameters are considered and that affects important decisions regarding the supposed building. The research recommends the need for building professionals to obtain basic climatic data from meteorological stations nearer to their proposed site and analyze such data for proper design of buildings.
Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni And Co Contents of Water and Sediments, in Relation to Phytoremediation and Translocation by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes Mart. Solms.) At Some Creeks of the Great Kwa River, Southeastern Nigeria (Published)
A passive phytoremediation study to investigate the environmental purification efficacy of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was carried out at Mbat-Abiati and Oberekkai Creeks of the Great Kwa River in Southeastern Nigeria. The study assessed the levels of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co in the water column and underlying sediments (abiotic monitors) in comparison with their levels in E. crassipes (biomonitor). Generally, observed values of heavy metals in sediment and water hyacinth of the two Creeks did not vary significantly (p>0.05), and the sequence that was frequently encountered in the accumulation of the heavy metals was: SEDIMENT>PLANT ROOTS>PLANT LEAVES>WATER. Relative Accumulation Indices (RAI) revealed that the concentration of the heavy metals in the sediments are much higher than values recorded for the waters. This appear normal since sediments are reservoirs for all contaminants and dead organic matter descending from the ecosystem above. The pattern of heavy metal concentrations in the organs of E. crassipes are closely associated with that of its geological substrate (water and sediments). Although zinc displayed the highest accumulation in both root and leaves tissues, and appeared more mobile from roots to leaves than other heavy metal, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) revealed Co as the metal with the highest phytoaccumulation capability in the area, followed by Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn, in that order. Indication from the study is that water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) can effectively absorb and translocate Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co, even when the concentrations of the metals in the abiotic components of the environment is low.
Poverty Decomposition For High And Low Users of Climate Smart Agricultural Techniques in Northwest Nigeria (Published)
Climate change projections estimate that developing countries who are least prepared for the changes in climate will be the most affected. Meanwhile, the already existing poverty in Nigeria is alarming and climate change threatens food security and poverty to a large extent. It was on this note that the study measured poverty levels for high and low users of climate smart agricultural practices of small holder farming households in North-West Nigeria. The study employed primary data using questionnaire instruments and focus group discussion in the North West region of Nigeria. The FGT Index model, Equally Distributed Equivalent (EDE) FGT, watts index, Sen, Shorrocks and Thon index were employed to decompose the monetary dimensions of poverty while Chakravarty et al (1998) technique, extended watts, extended FGT and Alkire and Foster were employed to decompose the non-monetary dimension. The findings show that poverty rate was higher for low-users of climate smart agricultural practices than for high-users for all dimensions under consideration and for all the decomposition techniques. This implies that farmers should make conscious efforts to practice climate smart agriculture regardless of their poverty status due to the fact that poverty resides more with low-users. It could be as a result of the fact that high-users make their production sustainable by practicing CSA and consequently high yields that might in turn reduce their poverty status. There is need for significant empowerment of the farmers, given that some of the climate smart agricultural practices have cost implications and require extra money to fund.
The style of information dissemination throughout the world this time has made the word globalization a common process of bringing the whole world together. As it stands now the information of any event at any part of the world gets to Nigeria or any other part of the world in a very short time. Therefore globalization has come to improve the process of communication and advancement in technology. The fast movements of goods and services, economic liberalism, scientific inventions and discoveries have reduced the large world to a global village. Nigeria as a developing country cannot shy away from globalization, since the country has been exposed to both the negative and positive effects of globalization. The objective of this article is to identify the effects of globalization on the Nigerian youths and the economy. It recognized the good opportunities of globalization, and suggests ways of eliminating the negative effects of globalization. The author reviewed existing literatures on the concepts of globalization and development
Survey and Cartography of the Spatial Variation of the Pollution of the Waters From Well of Some Districts of the Township of Abomey-Calavi, Benin. (Published)
The right to the development and to the improvement of the setting of life of each one as well as the duty to protect natural heritage are nowadays two (02) parameters, of a difficult problem to approach (AMHARREF and BERNOUSSI 2007). So, the water that constitutes a primordial factor for the human life and for all economic development is contaminated often by anthropic activities. The situation is more critical for the under-developed countries with limited water resources; it is the case of Benin. The major question that puts itself is then how to manage, to decontaminate and to protect our water resources without breaking down the anthropic activities affecting economic growth? This situation calls for protective and preventative measures that cannot be optional. The nature and the size of the measures to be taken according to the zones require a very advanced knowledge of features of these waters and the sources of their pollution. A prospective survey of three months spread from the month of January in the month of March 2013 and having for objective the assessment and the cartography of the hygienic quality of the waters of wells used like drinking water and also for the domestic activities, by the population of some districts of the township of Abomey-Calavi, has been achieved. To the total, twenty (20) withdrawals of water have been done from some twenty (20) wells presenting risks for the health of their users. The bacteriological analysis showed that all waters of well reveal a pollution due to the bacteria as the coliforms thermotolerants, the intestinal enterococcus, the total coliforms with the most elevated concentrations in the wells situated very close to the Lake Nokoué. It reveals that these waters can be responsible for the dissemination of water related diseases. The report between the coliforms’ thermolerants and the intestinal enterococcus indicated that the origin of the fecal contamination is of human type in 50% of the wells. The fecal contamination of human type concerns all wells close to the lake and the one of animal type concerns wells moved away of this lake.