International Journal of Education, Learning and Development (IJELD)

EA Journals

Secondary Schools

An Appraisal on the Readiness of Secondary Schools toward the Attainment of Self-Reliance through Agricultural Science Education in North East Nigeria (Published)

This paper examined the readiness of secondary schools toward the attainment of self-reliance through agricultural science education. Survey research design was adopted for this study. The population of the study comprises of all SSIII students and teachers of agricultural science in the nine selected secondary schools in the north eastern part of Nigeria. Data was collected using researcher’s developed questionnaire on four Linkert scale. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Some of the major findings of this research was; Nigerian agricultural science curriculum is appropriate in terms of goal and content in making students to be self-reliant after graduation, facilities and equipment for the teaching of Agric science are not adequate in meeting the need of students. Some recommendations were made; funds should be made available for the purchase of equipment for the teaching of practical, awareness should be created to students on the importance of Agric science in making them self-reliant.  

Citation: Alhamdu Ishaya and Dahiru Lamaran Bello (2022) An Appraisal on the Readiness of Secondary Schools toward the Attainment of Self-Reliance through Agricultural Science Education in North East Nigeria,,


Keywords: Agricultural Science, Appraisal, Education, North East Nigeria, Secondary Schools, Self-reliance, readiness

Students Attitude towards Sex Education among Senior Secondary Schools in Bekwarra Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

Citation: Effiom, Bassey Ekeng , Godwin Amuchi Odey and Florence A.  Undiyaundeye (2022)  Students Attitude towards Sex Education among Senior Secondary Schools in Bekwarra Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria, International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, Vol. 10, No.3, pp.26-38

Morality of the young is of perennial concern to educators throughout the world. As a numerous studies have been conducted and various suggestions have been made in order to educate the young people about their sexual functioning. The study was conducted specifically to find out about attitude towards sex education and their opinions on various sexual issues that are incumbent on development to adulthood sexuality. It was also to establish the need for sex education in schools. A simple random research design was used with a sample size for the study being 200 comprising respondents selected from form two students in eight senior secondary schools in Bekwarra LGA of Cross River State. The schools were obtained from a stratified, purposive and random sampling. The research revealed a number of findings in respect of the  about the sexual issues involved in their growth to adulthood. These findings which have significant implications are summarized below. Respondents were overwhelmingly in support of the view that sex education should be introduced in the senior high school curriculum. It was also evident that sex education can be improved in the Senior secondary schools by establishing counseling centers and also by forming virgin clubs in the schools

Keywords: Secondary Schools, Sex Education, Student' Attitude, learner

School Strategies for Managing Social Media Influence on Students’ Discipline in Kenyan Secondary Schools (Published)

Social media is a global phenomenon changing the world in different ways. It has also been found to have both positive and negative influences on education processes as well as on students’ discipline. Therefore, the study sought to develop strategies for managing the influence of social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools in Kenya. Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the research findings on the study objective which sought to establish and assess the strategies that the schools have and can put in place to manage the influence of social media on students’ discipline. The study utilized the pragmatic philosophical paradigm and the mixed methods research design where both positivists and constructivists approaches and techniques were combined. The study was undertaken in Bungoma County in Kenya. It was carried out in 306 secondary schools in the County. The target population of study was 19,000 students in Form 3. Scott Smith’s formula was used to determine the sample size of 600 students from 40 secondary schools as respondents. Purposive sampling was applied to select the 40 deputy principals and 40 heads of guidance and counselling departments from the selected secondary schools as respondents in the study. Three categories of boys’, girls’ and mixed schools were chosen from each sub-county. The questionnaires used had both closed- and open-ended questions. Interviews were also used to get more information for the study. Multiple Regression used to analyse the quantitative data. The strategies for managing discipline by schools were rated highly for implementation. The study recommended that schools should allow social media to be used as a teaching and learning tool only. They should also employ experts to control social media misuse by students. Schools should also enable teachers to monitor the use of social media by students. Meanwhile, they should strive to reduce exposure time to social media by students. This study will help schools to better address the root causes of student indiscipline and thus enhance learning in their institutions.

Keywords: Discipline, Secondary Schools, Students, managing social media influence, school strategies

Effect of Academic-Related Stress on Student Indiscipline in Secondary Schools In Eldoret East Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

Many factors contribute to student indiscipline in schools. Some of these factors emanate from the school environment. In light of this fact, the study was designed to establish the key school environment contributors and solutions to rowdiness among secondary school students in Eldoret East Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper discusses the findings on the effect of academic stress on indiscipline practices among secondary schools students in Eldoret East Sub-County. The study was led by Social Control Theory. Ex-post facto research design was used in the study. The target populace of the research included 3480 form three students and 54 deputy principals in public secondary schools in Eldoret East Sub County. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were adopted to pick a sample of 346 students to take part in the study. Census approach method was considered in which all the 54 deputy principals took part in the study. Questionnaires and interview schedule were used as data collection instruments. Data collected was analysed in both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was evaluated in form of frequencies, percentages, average and standard variation. Analysis of Variance was used to examine the hypotheses. The study also established that academic stress (F [47, 273] = 2.001, p = .000) had an effect on indiscipline’s cases among secondary school students. The study concluded that academic stress had an effect on indiscipline cases among secondary school students. The study, therefore, recommended that the schools should reduce academic stress by providing adequate time for relaxation to help reduce cases of indiscipline cases in secondary schools in Eldoret East Sub-County.

Keywords: Academic Stress, Effect, Eldoret East, Indiscipline, Kenya, Secondary Schools, Students

Assessing the Assessors from the Student Angle: Implication for Quality Assurance in Public Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)

Visionary teachers are needed to achieve quality teaching and learning in the school. It is now firmly believed that the effective functioning of an organization depends largely on employees’ efforts that extend beyond formal role requirements. This study therefore investigated the predictive power of some quality assurance indices (school climate, principals’ leadership role, instructional supervision, availability and utilization of instructional resources) on teachers’ job effectiveness in secondary schools. Five hundred and eighty-three (583) Senior Secondary School students comprising of 268 males and 315 females were sampled for this study. Self-developed instrument tagged “Quality Assurance in Education” was employed to obtain responses from the participants. Analyses of data were done using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis fixed at the .05 significant levels. Results revealed 16% of the variance in the teachers’ job effectiveness was accounted for by the combination of instructional supervision, instructional resources, school climate, and principal leadership ((R = .817; R2 = .667; R2 (adj) = .663; F(4,582) = 20.376; p < .05). This revealed that among others that school climate was the most potent predictor (β = .300; t = 7.354; p < .05), followed by principal leadership style; (β = .279; t = 5.897; p <. 05), instructional supervision (β = .151; t = 5.098; p > .05); and lastly by instructional resources (β = .093; t = 3.765; p > .05). The findings showed that students’ assessment based on the quality assurance indices were potent in the prediction of teachers’ job effectiveness. Based on the outcome of this study, it was recommended that Since the work environment is significantly related to job effectiveness of teachers, government should encourage the support of parents, students, philanthropists, and corporate institutions in improving secondary schools’ work environment in terms of physical facilities, information services, authority-staff relationship, and staff development in order to enhance better job performance of the teachers.

Keywords: Job Effectiveness, Principals’ Leadership Role, Quality Assurance, School climate, Secondary Schools, Teachers

Effect of Instructional Strategies on the Teaching and Acquisition of Listening Skills in Kiswahili Language (Published)

The research investigated the influence of the instructional process on the teaching and acquisition of listening skills in Kiswahili language. Informed by the study, this paper explores how the instructional strategies used influence the teaching and acquisition of listening skills in Kiswahili language in Kenyan secondary schools. The study used a sample of 13 secondary schools purposively selected from a total of 41 secondary schools in Wareng’ District, Kenya. Thirteen (13) teachers of Kiswahili and 130 Form Two learners of Kiswahili formed the respondents. The research was a descriptive survey since it set out to discover, describe and interpret existing conditions focusing on secondary school teachers of Kiswahili and Form Two learners. To collect data an interview schedule and an observation schedule were used. The 13 teachers were interviewed, the 130 learners participated in a Focus Group Discussion while 13 Kiswahili lessons were observed and tape-recorded. Analysed data was presented using frequency tables, percentages, graphs and charts. The study found that poor teaching strategies used in the teaching of listening in Kiswahili language is one of the main causes of the poor levels of language acquisition. In view of the findings, this study recommends that teachers of Kiswahili should build into their classrooms listening activities that have as much of the characteristics of real life listening as possible. One of the research implication of this study is that a study should be conducted in teacher training institutions to determine the effectiveness of teacher education programs in preparing teachers of Kiswahili in the teaching of listening skills.

Keywords: Acquisition Listening Skills, Effect, Instructional Strategies, Kenya, Kiswahili language, Secondary Schools, Teaching

Teachers’ perception of the roles of guidance counsellors in secondary schools in rivers state (Published)

The study investigated teachers’ perception of the roles of Guidance Counsellors in secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was adopted to select three hundred and seventy (370) male and female secondary school teachers from a population of five thousand three hundred school teachers. The “School Teachers’ Perception of Guidance Counsellors Rating Scale” (STPRGCRS) was administered to the respondents to collect necessary data. The t-test statistics was used to test three null hypotheses at 0.05 significance level. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences in teachers’ perception of the role of Guidance counsellors in secondary school in Rivers State. Therefore, the three null hypotheses were accepted. Based on the above findings six (6) recommendation were made: (1)The Government of Rivers State should endearvour to establish counselling units in each secondary schools, and should be functional to meet the needs of students. (2) Qualified counsellors from accredited colleges and universities, with minimum qualification of bachelor in Guidance and counselling or psychology. (3) Counsellors should focus on counselling students as their primary functions. (4) Counsellors should hold staffing with parents, students and teachers as time will permit in each school session. (5) Counsellors should strictly observe confidentiality as code of ethics. (6) Counsellor should be able to refer students with major emotional problems to the appropriate helping professionals.

Keywords: Counsellors, Guidance, Secondary Schools, Teachers’ Perception

Illicit Drug Use and Emotional Behaviour of Senior Secondary Students in Public Schools in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated the illicit drug use and its effect on the emotional behaviour of senior secondary students in public schools in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The study was designed to ascertain the relationship between illicit drug use and truancy, study habit and school violence in senior secondary schools in Uyo metropolis, a capital city of AkwaIbom State. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were formulated for the study. The study adopted the correlational research design. The population used for the study was 10,520 senior secondary school students from 13 public secondary schools in Uyo metropolis. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 1,300 senior secondary school students to form the sample. The researchers developed instrument titled “Illicit Drug Use and Emotional Behaviour of Senior Secondary Students in Public Schools (IDEBSSSPS) to collect data for the study. The instrument was validated by three research experts in the University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The reliability index of 0.82 was determined using Crombach’s Alpha. Mean was used to answer the research questions while simple regression was used to test the null hypotheses at .05 alpha level. The findings revealed that illicit drug use has a serious influence on the emotional behaviour of senior secondary students in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. It was recommended among others that public enlightenment campaigns should be organized at the secondary school level to educate students on the dangers of drug use.

Keywords: Akwa Ibom State, Emotional Behaviour, Illicit Drug Use, Secondary Schools

Teacher Demographic Variables and Students’s Academic Achievement in Secondary Schools Home Economics in Calabar Educational Zone of Cross River State (Published)

This study investigated the influence of teacher demographic variables on secondary School students’ academic achievement in Home Economics in Calabar educational zone of Cross River State. Hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. Some relevant literatures were reviewed based on the two variables of the study. The study adopted a survey design. Simple random sampling technique was utilized to draw four hundred and twenty (420) respondents comprising of twenty (20) Home Economics teachers and four hundred (400) JSS III Students from the population. Two sets of instruments were used to elicit information from the sample. These instruments include: “Teacher demographic variables questionnaire” (T.D.V.Q) and “Home Economics Achievement Test” (HEAT). Kuder Richardson formular – 21 was used to establish the reliability coefficient of HEAT with an estimate of 0.77. T-Test was used in the data analysis. The results of data analysis showed that the two hypotheses were significant at 0.05 probability level. This means that educational qualifications and experience of the teacher influence significantly the students’ academic achievement in Home Economics in the study area. Based on these findings some recommendations were made.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Calabar Educational Zone, Cross River State, Home Economics, Secondary Schools, Students, Teacher Demographic Variables


The concern of the study was to investigate into secondary school teachers’ knowledge of climate, its impacts and mitigation strategies. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used in selecting the respondents for the study. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire named Teacher Climate Change Knowledge Question (TCCKQ). The questionnaire was structured by the researchers and validated by experts. The findings revealed that teachers have the knowledge of climate change impacts on man, animals, their environment, as well as the different mitigating strategies. Revealed also is the disparity between teachers’ knowledge of climate change in urban and rural secondary schools. The implication of the findings is that success of climate change education depends on the knowledge of the teacher on the subject. It is recommended that climate change education be introduced into the teacher training institutions and regular training and workshops be organized for teachers.

Keywords: Climate Change, Knowledge, Nigeria, Rivers State, Secondary Schools, Teachers

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