International Journal of Developing and Emerging Economies (IJDEE) is an international peer-reviewed and referred journal published by European Centre for Research Training and Development, United Kingdom. The journal publishes original contributions at the forefront of social, trade, legislative and economic issues related to developing countries and emerging economics. IJDEE is published in both printed and online versions. The online version is free access and downloads. It also publishes book reviews of potential interest to readers. Papers submitted to this journal must be original, and are not considered in any other journal.