Global Journal of Human Resource Management (GJHRM)

EA Journals


An Intervention in the Human Resource Department, General Administrative Division, in the Ministry of National Security on the Effectiveness of Return of Investments (ROI) From Training (Published)

This study investigates why public sector organisations, specifically the General Administrative Department in the Ministry of National Security, must reassess their Training and developmental programs to maximise their effectiveness and efficiency. As a result, the Human Resource Unit will be the focus of this study to determine the Return on Investment in Training and Development and how to increase its effectiveness and efficiency within the Ministry of National Security and, by extension, all its subsidiaries. The evaluation of investments in enhancing employee knowledge, skills and abilities is expected to benefit the organisation and usually requires the output of substantial amounts of resources on the company’s part. Thus, it is crucial to assess training initiatives efficiency (Goldstein, 1986; Hinrichs, 1976; Kirkpatrick, 1978; Wexley & Latham, 1981). In the General Administration Division of the Ministry of National Security, the returns from Training are commonly assessed using the Kirkpatrick model as outlined by Cabinet Minute 2140 (1998). Such assessments within the organisation can help evaluate training programs’ benefits and whether they contribute to achieving their objectives. The method of evaluation currently utilised by the General Administration Division is the Kirkpatrick model. In this study, the Kirkpatrick model will serve as the guiding framework for analysing the collected data. The chosen methodology for this study was the mixed-method simple approach, which, as the name suggests, consists of applying more than one data type. Hence, the data collection method would consist of both qualitative and quantitative data, and the channels used include primary and secondary data gathered through interviews, questionnaires, books, and scholarly articles.Upon completing this study, the main issue identified was the Ministry’s lack of fully utilising the Kirkpatrick model in evaluating its implemented training and development programs. According to the data collected, emphasis is placed more on levels 1, which is the reaction, and 2, which is learning. At level 3, which is behaviour to level 4 (results), it shows little to no focus as use diminishes, leaving the findings lacking in accuracy and validity. Findings also suggested that the responses are lower than expected in its post-assessment attempts to generate much-needed feedback. The recommendations were based on the insights that evolved from the diagnosis and findings portion of this research paper and were guided by the Kirkpatrick model used in the evaluation of Training and development, together with the complement of the Phillips Return of Investment model. The main recommendation is to properly execute the Kirkpatrick model from levels 1 to level 4 as intended to properly assess the training effectiveness and efficiency. This would involve running post-assessment evaluations from levels 1 to 4 and noting the increase in levels of complexity in the type of data collection and application being used. Progressing to levels 3 and 4 will take more time to complete and require more resources. However, once the Model is appropriately executed, it would allow the organisation to make more informed decisions regarding using its resources and the effectiveness and efficiency of Training and developmental programs implemented. Finally, the paper outlines an action plan for implementing an evaluation process for Training that can also be applied to the evaluation process of any project undertaken by the General Administration Division, any Governmental agency or organisation. In the implementation process, it illustrates the data collection plan, an explanation of the tabulation of program costs, calculation of the ROI, converting the data to monetary benefits and an evaluation plan in the form of a gnat chart. This process gives a clearer idea of the responsibilities and accountability of each employee as they aim to achieve the organisation’s goals. Future insights would encourage further research on other evaluation methods to determine which best meets the organisation’s needs in assessing training and development effectiveness and efficiency.

Keywords: Intervention, Ministry of National Security, Training, general administrative division, human resource department, return of investments (ROI)

Evaluating the Impact of Training and Skill Development Programs on Employee Performance in Banking Sector / Financial Institutions (Published)

In the ever-evolving landscape of the banking industry, the imperative of maintaining a highly skilled and adaptable workforce is paramount. This research undertakes a comprehensive examination of the influence exerted by training and skill development programs on employee performance within private banks. The study endeavors to unravel the intricacies of the relationship between training initiatives, skill enhancement, and overall organizational outcomes. Employing a meticulously crafted mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews, this research seeks to provide a nuanced and holistic understanding of the multifaceted dynamics at play. The literature review situates this study within the broader context of research on training programs and employee performance. While existing studies demonstrate a positive correlation between employee training and improved performance, it is acknowledged that the effectiveness of such programs is contingent upon factors such as program design, delivery methods, and organizational culture. The specific nuances within the private banking sector necessitate a dedicated exploration to bridge the current gap in the literature. Methodologically, a mixed-methods approach was employed to capture the richness and depth of the phenomenon under investigation. Quantitative data was gathered through structured surveys distributed among employees who had participated in training programs within private banks. Likert scales were employed to assess perceived improvements in skill levels and performance outcomes. Concurrently, qualitative data was obtained through in-depth interviews with key stakeholders, including human resource professionals and training facilitators, providing a more holistic understanding of the contextual factors influencing program efficacy. Preliminary analysis of the data suggests an overall positive perception among employees regarding the impact of training and skill development programs on their performance. Quantitative results reveal statistically significant improvements in self-reported skill levels and job performance. Qualitative findings enrich the understanding by uncovering the nuanced role of program design, support mechanisms, and organizational culture in shaping the outcomes of training initiatives. The ensuing discussion synthesizes the quantitative and qualitative findings, exploring the implications of the results for human resource management practices and organizational strategy within private banks. This section delves into potential areas for improvement in the design and implementation of training programs, offering actionable recommendations for private banks seeking to optimize the impact of these initiatives on employee performance. In doing so, this research contributes valuable insights to both academic research and the practical realm of human resource management and organizational development within the banking sector.

Keywords: Banking Sector, Employee Performance, Training, financial institutions, skill development programs

A Synopsis of Training, Employee Retention and Performance (Published)

Training and development is essential to any firm that wants to retain employees and realize better performance. Current businesses are forced to establish training and development programs that assist in attaining required skills and competencies in the organization. But without competent employees, firms grapple with challenges of poor output and dismal performance. This conceptual study paper presents a synopsis of the linkage of training, employee retention and performance. Theories underpinning the study are human capital theory, social learning theory and theory of human resource management. Drawn from wide theoretical assumptions, opportunity to training is one of the greatest reasons to why workers stay in the organization. Employees need noble training opportunities to improve their performance and demand in the labour market. Training is seen as a major factor in contributing to employee improved performance and reduction of work related accidents. Various scholars have alluded to the fact that retained employees master the art of delivering excellent goods and services to consumers. There is need for establishment of better employee retention strategies to bond trained employees with the firm. The paper contributes to body of knowledge by providing a conceptual framework of the linkage of training, employee retention and performance which would be of beneficial to human resource practitioners and human resource policy makers. It further builds a model that will assist researchers in exploring employee retention as a mediating role in training and performance.

Keywords: Development, Employee Retention, Performance, Training

Non-Monetary Incentives and Employee Motivation of Non-Governmental Medical Organizations in Port Harcourt, Nigeria (Published)

The study investigated the relationship between non-monetary incentives and motivation of non-governmental medical organizations in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The unit of analysis was at the individual level. The study employed cross sectional survey method for social research and primary data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. A total of sixty one (61) employees from two (2) Non-governmental medical organizations in Port Harcourt formed the study population and sample size. However fifty eight (58) copies of the questionnaire were retrieved from respondents and forty one (41) were found useful and were utilized for data analysis. In order to ascertain the reliability test of the instruments, the Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0.7 was used as a minimum bench mark; the data analyses were aided by the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 23. Descriptive statistics and the Spearman rank order correlation were used for data analysis and hypothesis testing. Empirical findings revealed that there is a positive significant relationship between non-monetary incentives and employee motivation of non-governmental medical organizations in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The study thus concluded that non-monetary incentives have a positive and significant influence on employee motivation of non-governmental medical organizations in Port Harcourt. The study recommends that non-governmental medical organizations in Port Harcourt should be keen on implementing non-monetary incentives and improvements should be made on recognizing employees.

Keywords: Employee Motivation, Training, employee achievement, employee growth, the work itself

Assessment of Support Services Available for Staff on Probation in University of Education, Winneba (Published)

For staff on probation to be effective and efficient, they need to be properly supported in their line of duty.  Planned and systematic probation periods are usually used by organizations to increase commitment and maximize employee contribution as quickly as possible.  Another importance of the probation is to give newly appointed employees sufficient support and guidance to enable them become effective and efficient members of staff.  Despite these, it seems support services available to staff on probation in the University of Education, Winneba are not adequate. This study adds to the existing knowledge focusing on the special case of the University of Education, Winneba.  Data was collected by administering questionnaire.  The study targeted all senior members and senior staff of the Winneba and Ajumako campuses of the University of Education, Winneba who were on probation or had just been confirmed with a sample size of fifty (50).  Data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).  The study revealed that most  newly appointed staff were not satisfied with the support services available for their probation; due to inadequate orientation given, lack of regular feedback on performance and absence of socializing activities.  The study recommended that the University of Education, Winneba should institutionalize support services by having a comprehensive guide to manage probation periods to monitor and ensure  easy integration of all staff.

Keywords: Induction, Training, orientation, probation periods

Training Of Human Resources and Job Satisfaction (Published)

This paper presents the results of a quantitative survey conducted in 278 primary school teachers (teachers and kindergarten teachers) in the prefecture of Ilias with the aim of exploring their views on the impact of training on job satisfaction. In addition, it was investigated whether these views differ according to gender, age, seniority, marital status, specifity (primary school teacher or kindergarten teacher), type of employment relationship (permanent, deputy) and service area (urban area, suburban area, rural area). Τhe research results showed that the majority of participants recognize the contribution of training to job satisfaction mainly indirectly. It is also worth mentioning that a great percentage of the respondents of the survey answer in a neutral way on several items of the questionnaire (neither agree nor disagree). These views appear to be statistically significantly different, on the basis of most predefined variables.

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Teachers, Training

Coaching As a Managerial Tool within the Framework of Human Resources Management (Published)

The current trend in human resource management underlines the main role of a leader in motivating employees and helping them develop in the respective skills and talents. Researches and studies in the field of human resource management and organizational culture have indicated that effective and successful leaders are those who are exceptional motivators and coaches. In this paper the researcher defines coaching, identifies its skills, techniques, tools, objectives in addition to the major differences and similarities with other approaches such as counselling and mentoring.

Keywords: Coaching, Training, counseling

Management Training and Development: A Leadership Strategy to Performance Management and Job Satisfaction in Kenyan Universities (Published)

Kenya’s university lecturers are generally highly educated. Their capacity to carry out their mandate effectively and their recognition as essential assets to society and world – class institutions depend on their training, experience, commitment and quality of their productivity (Republic of Kenya, 2007). Specific mechanisms ought to be put in place to address the lecturers’ wellbeing, to ensure their motivation, retention and productivity. The author of this paper opines that university management is tasked with the responsibility of facilitating their staff training and development in order to bridge any existing gaps or shortcomings and sharpen their skills. The rationale for training in the work context being to better hone the abilities or skills of the individual and satisfy the short and long term manpower requirements of the organisation. This paper thus focuses on management training and development as a strategic tool to performance management and job satisfaction among Kenyan universities. The study employed convergent parallel mixed methods design with census, random and systematic sampling techniques to select the respondents. Purposive sampling was also used to select information-rich cases. A target population of 2,773 members of university management and lecturers in the chartered public and private universities with their main campuses in Rift Valley Region of Kenya was considered from which a sample of 605 participants was obtained. Questionnaires, interview and document analysis guides were used for data collection. Qualitative data was thematically analysed while quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, independent-samples t-test, One-way ANOVA and regression coefficients, with the use of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20. The study found that training and development exhibited the strong association with lecturers’ job satisfaction and performance management in the selected Kenyan Universities. For attainment of higher levels of job satisfaction and performance, the study recommended enhancement of training and development programmes in the Universities.

Keywords: Development, Job Satisfaction, Leadership Strategy, Performance Management., Training

Utilization of Human Capital Resource Capabilities as a Competitive Tool in Organizations for Improved Employee Performance in Courier Companies in Kenya (Published)

Employees are the backbone of the organization and ensures that company policies and programs are implemented effectively. Employee performance is linked with capital resource capabilities. This paper sought to examine utilization of human capital resource capabilities as a competitive tool in organizations for improved employee performance in courier companies in Kenya. For comparison in analysis, other resource capabilities tested included; physical resource, financial resource and social resource. The study involves human capital theory. From a target population of 2800 a sample of 339 respondents was obtained using Cochran’s formula. Simple random sampling was used and employed explanatory research design. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlation and moderated regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that physical capital resource capabilities had the greatest influence on employee performance, financial capital resource capabilities which also had a positive and statistically significant influence and finally the human capital resource capabilities which this paper aimed to examine had a positive relationship but statistically insignificant influence. Social capital resource capabilities were found not to be significantly associated with employee performance. The study recommends that courier companies should identify their critical capital resource capabilities putting emphasis on those that can enhance employee performance and train employees on computer usage and internet. The policy makers such as ministry of communications and information technology should also put emphasis on technological advancements in the provision of courier services.

Keywords: Employee Performance, Human Capital Resource Capabilities, Human Resource Management, Training

Effect of Human Capital Investment on Organizational Performance of Pharmaceutical Companies in Kenya (Published)

Provision of adequate health care services to their population remains a major challenge for governments in Africa. In Kenya, the number of trained Pharmacists is increasing with time but still insufficient relative to the population in need (one pharmacist for every 8,710 persons, or approximately 0.1 per 1000 persons. Kenya had about 8 pharmacists for every 100,000 people). It was estimated that for the country to meet its health related Millennium Development Goals, the pharmacy workforce needed to grow by 28 per cent annually between 2010 and 2015. Whereas, Kenya’s population is estimated to be 43 million (provisional) in 2014, the number of registered pharmacist in 2013 was 2,202 and rose to 2,355 with a ratio of 5 pharmacists per 100,000 persons. In summary we have approximately 5:100,000, meaning 5 pharmacists to 100,000 persons, while the requirement is approximately 1:10000, meaning 1 pharmacist to 10000 persons. The current numbers of pharmacists are not adequate for achievement of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goal 3. The study sought to establish the effect of Human Capital Investment on Organizational Performance of Pharmaceutical Companies in Kenya. The independent variables include: training, education, knowledge management and skills development. The main underpinning theories in this study include: Human Capital, Skill Acquisition and Sustainable Resource Theory. 200 observations were used in the study. Study used questionnaires in data collection, descriptive and inferential statistics used in the analysis. The found a positive significant relationship between human capital investment and organizational performance. The study recommends provision of quality education, relevant training linked to industry requirement, the study suggest adoption of German Dual Vocational Education and Training system to facilitate and strengthen linkage between education sector and the industry. Promotion of knowledge management through teamwork, social networks and knowledge management systems; training on employability and transferability skills to enhance Skills Development. The enterprises to go beyond traditional apprenticeship, Soft skills assessment in schools, embrace technology and promote intrapreneurship. The study also suggest introduction of Skill Development Fund to equip the communities and businesses with relevant skills required in the dynamic global market place.

Keywords: : Human Capital, Education, Human Capital Investment, Knowledge Management, Skills Development, Soft Skills and Organizational Performance, Training

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