Global Journal of Agricultural Research (GJAR)

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Combining Ability Estimates and Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out to determine the combining ability estimates and heterosis for yield and yield components in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Nigeria. A seven plant diallel was planted across three locations using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Parameters assessed include days to 50% heading, plant heights, panicle lengths, panicle weights, number of seeds per panicle, number of productive tillers, number of panicle branches, yields per hectare, 100 grain weight. Assessment of GCA and SCA were carried out. Percentage heterosis were also determined for all traits studied. Significantly higher yield was recorded by P5, P4, P3, P6, P7, P2, and P1 with means of 5.86t/ha, 5.26 t/ha, 5.09 t/ha, 4.94 t/ha, 4.91 t/ha, 4.74 t/ha and 4.49 t/ha respectively across three locations studied. Hybrids P1xP5, P3xP6, P4xP7, P3xP5 produced significantly higher yields of 6.14 t/ha, 6.13 t/ha, 6.22 t/ha), 6.95 t/ha compared to their parental means. Similarly, significant difference were recorded in all other traits studied among parents and hybrids. GCA means squares were significantly higher than that of SCA for most of the traits studied. Additive variance was shown to predominate for plant heights and productive tillers while dominance was higher in yield per plants. Narrow sense heritability was higher on days to flowering, plant heights, panicle length and productive tillers. Yield in general was found to be significantly higher for combining ability in P5, P3 and P4. The overall GCA status for the ten agronomical traits studied showed that P5, P3, P1 and P2 are higher general combiners. Hybrids P3xP5, P5xP6, P2xP3, P5xP7 and P2xP7 produced higher total overall SCA, however, some produced more dominance on a particular trait than others. Both positive and negative heterosis for mid-parent, standard and better parent were also observed.

Citation: Ayuba S; Vange T; Ojo G.O.S.; OchigboA.E (2022) Combining Ability Estimates and Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Nigeria, Global Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol.10, No.5, pp.10-27

Keywords: Rice, Yield, combining ability, heterois

Agricultural Commodities and Economic Growth in Nigeria (Published)

This study investigates the determinants of macroeconomic variables that affect agricultural production in Nigeria. Time – series data, covering the period of 1986 -2016, United States reports, were used. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression technique was fitted to the data. Result showed that corn output has a positive relationship with agricultural output. Millet, rice and palm oil also have positive relationships with total agricultural output. The individual test revealed that corn has no significant impact on agricultural output while millet has a significant impact on agricultural output within the period under study. Thus, this study recommends that there is need to improve on the agricultural practice level of farmers in Nigeria through extension education, so as to achieve food security and conserve the resource base. This should be the intensified and geared towards making farmers to become more aware and understand the consequences of use of more external inputs on their resource base, and the inherent benefits associated with the use of more internal inputs in food production. Improve agricultural production, processing and trade through increased access to resources such as land, technology (improved inputs) credit, and training.

Keywords: Farmers, Food Security, Land, Palmoil, Rice, corn, millet

Assessment Of Factors Affecting Rice (Oryza Spp.) Value Chain (Rvc) In Ogun and Niger States, Nigeria (Published)

The need to increasing rice productivity, value addition and acceptability through the rice value chain are some of the objectives of Federal Government of Nigeria in recent time. Rice is a major staple food in Nigeria. Rice production is however low which make the country to be a net importer of rice in Africa. This study was carried out to assess factors affecting rice (Oryza spp.) value chain in Ogun and Niger States, Nigeria. Multistage sampling techniques were used in the selection of 320 respondents for this study. Data collected were analyzed with chi square. Results of this research showed that more than forty percent of the respondents were between 30 – 40 years of age, predominantly male (80.3%), married (83.1%), had relatively large household size (6 people) and formal education (80.6%). Average income generated was estimated as ₦551,250/ha. They were member of Cooperative societies (66.6%), FADAMA (23.4%) and RIFAN (10%). More respondents (60%) carried out soil test and used tractor for land clearing in Niger State than in Ogun State (11.9%). Rice seeds were mostly planted on the field nursery (90%) rather than tray nursery (10%) using broadcasting method (84.4%). Hired and family labour (58.2%) was used for rice value chain in the two sampled states. Also, most operations in the rice processing were carried out manually (100%) due to non-availability of basic rice processing facilities. Marketing of rice was usually done at local markets (98.3%) at interval of 5-day marketing (72.2%) and mudu/congo (69.1%) was the item used for measurement in the market. Moreover, the returns of value addition were higher at marketing stage (₦750/kg in Ogun State and ₦550/kg in Niger State) than production stage (₦350/kg in Ogun State and ₦280/kg in Niger State). Birds’ disturbance (96.6%), high cost of processing equipment (92.5%), inadequate finance (83.1%) and lack of rural infrastructure (82.8%) were the major constraints to rice value chain in the sampled states. Chi- square analysis shows that there is significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and value addition at p < 0.05 level of significance. Similarly, significant relationship existed between threshing (χ2 = 8.35, df = 1, p = 0.00) and rice value addition at p < 0.05 level of significance. The study therefore recommends that rice farmers should embark on value addition to enhance their income from rice production.

Keywords: Assessment, Factors, Niger, Ogun, Rice, Value Chain

Analysis of Rice Profitability and Marketing Chain: The Case Study of Taluka Pano Akil District Sukkur Sindh Pakistan (Published)

The purpose of this study was to investigate rice profitability and marketing in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh. This study was based on primary data, which was collected from rice farming in study area. Analysis was done by using statistical technique like means, comparison of means and frequency distribution etc. Results shows rice farmer’s on average per acre spent a total cost of production of Rs.41910.00, this included Rs.15200.00, Rs.2350.00, Rs.2900.00, Rs.7460.00, Rs.7400.00 and Rs.6600.00 on fixed cost, Land preparation, Seed and sowing, Farm inputs, Harvesting and threshing marketing costs respectively on capital inputs. Rice farmers on average per acre gross return of Rs.80200.00, Rs.70200.00 on rice grain, Rs.10000.00 on straw in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh. The rice farmers on an average per acre earned during study, Rs.38290.00 on net income, Rs.80200.00 on gross income and Rs.41910.00 on total expenditure in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh. Rice farmers on an average per acre gross income Rs.108400.00 and total expenditure is Rs.68310.00 in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur  Sindh area therefore they availed input output ratio of 1: 1.58 from ricegrowing in the study area.  The selected rice farmers on a net income per acre earned Rs.38290.00and total expenditure Rs.41910.00 in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh area th Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world’s population. In Asia, more than 80% of the people live on rice, and their primary food security is entirely dependent on the volume of rice produced in this part of the world. However, rice production increases are now lagging behind population growth. Overall, the total global rice is declining gradually even with the extensive use of the modern varieties such as high yielding and hybrid varieties.

Keywords: Cost-Benefit Ratio, Marketing Costs, Net Returns, Profitability, Rice


This study estimated technical efficiency of rice farmers in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to sample 300 rice farmers. A stochastic frontier production function was used to estimate technical efficiency. The study further assessed the factors that affect technical efficiency of the rice farmers. All the coefficients were found to have positively influenced paddy rice productivity. The level of efficiency of rice farmers was found to be 0.63. The study further found that gender and household size were significant determinants of technical efficiency. The study therefore recommended policies that will ensure that costs of productive inputs are affordable to farmers and improving households’ income through better prices for their output. Provision of labor saving equipment is also important in reducing inefficiencies in paddy production through reduction in labor cost.

Keywords: Niger-Delta, Nigeria, Rice, Stochastic Frontier Production Function., Technical Efficiency

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