Global Journal of Agricultural Research (GJAR)

EA Journals


Profitability and Determinants of Output of Rice Production in Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

The study examined the profitability and determinants of output of rice production in Anambra State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: estimate the profitability of rice production; establish the determinants of production output; and identify constraints to rice production in the area.Multistage, purposive and random sampling methods were used to select respondents. Though 378 copies of the questionnaire were administered to the farmers by personal interview, 315 adequately filled copies were sorted and used in data collation. Primary data used for the study were collated and analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistical tools such as the enterprise budgeting technique (gross margin, net farm income, mean net farm income and net return on income) Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, One- way ANOVA and Scheffe’s Multiple Comparison test. Findings on the profitability of rice production in the area showed that per hectare gross margin figures were N315,300, N285,600, N302,800 and N301,233 for Anambra, Aguata and Awka Agricultural zones, and the State (study area) respectively. Net return on investment figures were 1.49, 1.23, 1.30 and 1.35 respectively. The NROI values indicate that for every N1.00 investments in rice productions in the three zones and the State the farmers are likely to realize on one hectare N1.49 in Anambra Agricultural zone, N1.23 in Aguata zone, N1.30 in Awka zone and on the average N1.35 in the State, hence rice production is a profitable enterprise in the area. Meanwhile, Schefee’s Multiple Comparison test indicated no significant difference between per hectare mean net farm incomes realized by farmers from paired agricultural zones. Findings on the influence of socio-economic characteristics of the farmers on production output indicated that five regressors (educational level, farming experience, farm size, amount of credit obtained and cost of inputs) exerted independent and statistically significant influences on output while the rest six did not have significant influence on output. Constraints to rice production posited insufficient fund as the most serious problem of rice production in the area, followed by scarcity and high cost of labour, scarcity and high cost of quality seeds, among others. Government should encourage financial institutions to make loans available to farmers and form cooperative societies to obtain bulk purchase of high quality seeds and other input resources.

Keywords: Constraints, Output, Production, Profitability

Analysis of cassava production in Akpabuyo Local Government Area: An econometric investigation using farm-level data (Published)

The study analyzed the economics of cassava production in Akpabuyo LGA of Cross River State. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 75 respondents for the study using a validated structured questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, budgetary method and regression analysis. Findings revealed that farm size, labour, the quantity of fertilizer, and gender were the significant factors affecting cassava production in the study area. The coefficients of elasticity showed that a 10% increase in capital, labour, number of bundles and quantity of fertilizer would lead to 0.06, 0.84, 0.03 and 0.85% increase respectively in cassava production while that of farm size will lead to -0.64% decline in cassava production. Total Cost (TC) per hectare of N35,990.4 was incurred in cassava production and a net farm income (NFI) of N39,957.6 was earned and return on naira invested was N2.11. Unfavourable government policies, sparse marketing outlets, inadequate capital, high cost of inputs, insufficient farmland, high cost of transportation and lack of extension services were the severe constraint faced by cassava farmers in the study area. Extension agents should be mobilized and sent to the study area to educate the farmers on the innovation practices available for cassava farming to encourage its production.

Keywords: Production, Profitability, cassava, constraint

Analysis of Poultry Eggs Marketing In South-South Part of Nigeria. A Case Study of Ika South Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)

Poultry egg marketing is a common enterprise in Ika South Local Government Area, Delta State of Nigeria; but there are no documented research findings on the conduct of the market and profitability to authenticate the viability of this business. Thus, this study was targeted to analyze the performance of poultry egg marketing in Ika South Local Government Area, Delta State. The study was conducted in five purposively selected villages in Ika South L.G.A., Delta State. Twelve (12) respondents were then randomly selected from each of the five selected villages to give a total of sixty respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, the profitability of poultry egg marketing was determined using gross profit margin analysis, net profit margin analysis and return on investment. Gini Coefficient was used to examine the market structure for poultry egg marketing. The results of the study showed that majority (40.00%) of the poultry egg marketers were within the age group of 30≥ 40 years, majority (71.70%) of the marketers were female, 50.00% were married, 35.00% had family size of 3 – 5 persons. 30.00% of them attained  tertiary level of education, 41.67% had marketing experience of 1-5 years, 53.33% had egg marketing as their primary occupation, 65.00% were none members of co-operative societies. The gross profit margin was N772,200 while the net profit margin was N747,500 per marketer per annum and return on investment was 0.29,  which showed that poultry egg marketing is profitable and viable in the study area.  Gini Coefficient of 0.3054 showed that there was a moderate inequality in the distribution of incomes among the marketers hence some level of perfect competition of the market structure. The major constraints militating against poultry egg marketing in the study area included: inadequate capital, poor transportation, price fluctuations and exorbitant price of poultry eggs. The study therefore recommended that credit granting institutions should be established, effective transportation system and good road networks should be constructed in the study area for easy transportation, price control mechanism should be established to avoid fluctuation of price within the marketing system and the activities of trade union should be minimized to reduce the exorbitant price of poultry eggs to consumers.

Keywords: Gini Coefficient, Market structure, Marketers, Nigeria, Poultry Eggs, Profitability

Effect of Weed Control Methods on Profitable Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) Production in Rainforest-Savanna Transition Agro-Ecology of Nigeria (Published)

A study was conducted at Institute of Agriculture Research and Training, Ibadan in 2015 and 2016 to investigate the effect and profitability of selected weed management methods on weeds, kenaf growth and yield. Ibadan is a rainforest-savanna transition agro-ecology. Seven treatments were applied, viz. weed-free control, weedy control, pre-emergence herbicide (metolachlor 1.44kg active ingredient/ hectare (a.i/ha) + hoe weeding at 4 weeks after planting (WAP), Citrullus lanatus (melon) cover + hoe weeding (4 WAP), sweet potato cover + hoe weeding (4 WAP), mulch cover (Panicum maximum) + hoe weeding (4 WAP) and two hoe weeding regimes at 4 and 8 WAP. Results showed that weed-free treatment had the tallest kenaf plant height, widest butt girth and greatest number of leaves in both years of trail. Dissimilarity to other treatments in plant height, butt girth, number of leaves, canopy cover, and core yield was found in weedy control which had the least value for these parameters throughout the study. However, butt girth was comparable across treatments applied except the weedy control. With the exception of weedy control and weed-free, other treatments had kenaf plants with similar canopy width which were significantly greater than that of weedy control and significantly less than that of weed-free treatment. Relative to weedy control, other weed management treatments had a significantly reduced weed dry weight and weediness. Kenaf plant height had significant positive correlation with butt girth, bast fibre, core fibre, canopy cover and weed control rate. However, weed biomass and weediness had significant negative correlation with kenaf traits measured. Partial budgeting analysis showed that Net income (NI) in bast fibre was highest in weed free (N3,608, 324.00/ha = US$12, 027.75/ha) and lowest net income (NI) was recorded in weedy control (N437, 098.25/ha = US$1, 456.99/ha).  

Keywords: Cover Crop, Kenaf Production, Profitability, Weed management

Analysis of Rice Profitability and Marketing Chain: The Case Study of Taluka Pano Akil District Sukkur Sindh Pakistan (Published)

The purpose of this study was to investigate rice profitability and marketing in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh. This study was based on primary data, which was collected from rice farming in study area. Analysis was done by using statistical technique like means, comparison of means and frequency distribution etc. Results shows rice farmer’s on average per acre spent a total cost of production of Rs.41910.00, this included Rs.15200.00, Rs.2350.00, Rs.2900.00, Rs.7460.00, Rs.7400.00 and Rs.6600.00 on fixed cost, Land preparation, Seed and sowing, Farm inputs, Harvesting and threshing marketing costs respectively on capital inputs. Rice farmers on average per acre gross return of Rs.80200.00, Rs.70200.00 on rice grain, Rs.10000.00 on straw in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh. The rice farmers on an average per acre earned during study, Rs.38290.00 on net income, Rs.80200.00 on gross income and Rs.41910.00 on total expenditure in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh. Rice farmers on an average per acre gross income Rs.108400.00 and total expenditure is Rs.68310.00 in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur  Sindh area therefore they availed input output ratio of 1: 1.58 from ricegrowing in the study area.  The selected rice farmers on a net income per acre earned Rs.38290.00and total expenditure Rs.41910.00 in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh area th Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world’s population. In Asia, more than 80% of the people live on rice, and their primary food security is entirely dependent on the volume of rice produced in this part of the world. However, rice production increases are now lagging behind population growth. Overall, the total global rice is declining gradually even with the extensive use of the modern varieties such as high yielding and hybrid varieties.

Keywords: Cost-Benefit Ratio, Marketing Costs, Net Returns, Profitability, Rice

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