Global Journal of Agricultural Research (GJAR)

EA Journals


Field Experience of Agricultural Communication Methods and Attitudes toward the New Trends in Extension in Syria (Published)

The role of agricultural extension has always been a hot topic and under debate for all agricultural specialists, simply because of its vital role in implementing the agricultural policies and rural development, because it is the linkage between the rural community and the organizations involved in rural development and agricultural sector in both farming and non-farming perspectives.

This research is divided to two basic sections; each is divided to two sub-categories as follows:

  • The first part is dedicated to communication methods
  • The second part is dedicated to new trends in global economy in terms of its influence on agriculture and rural development.

The main findings of this research are: Extension staff lacks to sufficient training qualitatively and quantitatively with social and economic constraints, which makes a reform of the current system is a must to overcome insufficiencies in different areas.


Keywords: Communication Methods, Constraints, Decentralization, Globalization, ICTs, Pluralism, Privatization, Reform, extension

Comparative Analysis of Constraints to Cassava Production by Cassava Farmer Loan Beneficiaries and Loan Non-Beneficiaries in South-South Nigeria (Published)

This study was carried out to analyse and compare the constraints to cassava production among cassava farmer loan beneficiaries (CFLB) and cassava farmer loan non-beneficiaries (CFLNB) in South-south Nigeria. Purposive, multi-stage random sampling techniques were used to select a total of five hundred (500) respondents which comprised of two hundred and fifty (250) CFLB and another 250 CFLNB. Primary data were sourced through three sets of well – structured questionnaires to the two categories of farmers and the third to the banks officials. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in data analysis. The result of data analysis showed that the mean age of CFLB was 43 years with 26% within 36 and 45 years active working population while the mean age of CFLNB was 41 years with about 31% within 36 and 45 years. Majority, about 60% of CFLB and about 74% of CFLNB were males while about 40% of CFLB and about 25% of CFLNB were females. The mean household size for both CFLB and CFLNB was 5 persons. However, the mean number of years spent in schools by CFLB was 12 years, while the CFLNB spent 10 years. The mean farming experience by CFLB was 5 years while the CFLNB was 6 years. The mean annual farm income of CFLB was N188,602.00 whereas the mean annual farm income of CFLNB was N100,000.00. The major constraints limiting cassava production among CFLB and CFLNB were scarcity and high cost of fertilizer (87.97%) and (77.46%), high cost of agrochemicals (87.55%) and (77.05%), unavailability of research results to cassava farmers at the appropriate time (79.25%) and inadequate extension services (77.59%). The least problems were drought (43.98%), soil water pollution (36.93%) and stream/river pollution (35.68%). It was concluded that increasing cassava farmers’ access to loan would enhance their productivity through improved well-being and living standard. Recommendations such as timely disbursement of loans, improved supervision by bank officials, regular visit by the extension staff, adequate training of successful loan applicants, design and implementation of cassava- friendly loan package as well as small-loan mechanisms to favour cassava farmers were made among others.

Keywords: CFLB, CFLNB, Cassava production, Comparative Analysis, Constraints, South-south Nigeria.

Analysis of Labour Productivity and Constraints of Rubber Latex Exploitation among Smallholder Rubber Farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria (Published)

The objective of the study was conducted to analyze labour productivity and constraints of small holder rubber farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 300 rubber farmer using purposive and random sampling techniques. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Likert scale and labour productivity model. Result of the analysis revealed that wage tapping and share arrangement accounted for 43.33 percent and 36.33 percent respectively. Labour productivity analysis revealed a yield of 826,434.31 kg dry rubber per year and gross income of N81, 949,226.18 per year while the output per man day was 22.58 kg. Wage / man day was N377.78, while an average plantation owner reaps N1,860.56 after adjustments were made to wages and other costs of operation. The major constraints of rubber farmers included shortage and high cost of labour ranked the first major problem, inadequate credit as the second most important and significant constraint of rubber farmers while poor rubber prices and storage facilities problem were the third and the fourth most important significant problems faced by respondents. The study however recommended that rubber farmers should form cooperative societies and associations to enable them access production credit from commercial and Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) for rubber production.

Keywords: Constraints, Exploitation, Likert scale, Niger-Delta, Productivity, Smallholder, latex

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