Nutrient Requirements of Livestock for Sustainable Productivity in Tropical Africa: A Review (Published)
The objective of this paper was to review nutrient requirements of farm animals in other to improve feed supply and utilization for healthy sustainable livestock productivity in tropical Africa. Farm animals require nutrients to support body maintenance, reproduction, lactation, and growth. The nutritional needs of livestock vary according to breed, age, sex, class, stage of production, performance level and weight. Physiological and environmental stressors, such as sickness and weather, can also influence nutritional requirements of farm animals. Most livestock need carbohydrates, protein, minerals, vitamins and water. Identification of nutritional need of farm animals throughout the production cycle is paramount. Feeding animals without consideration to their nutrient requirements is tantamount to wasting time and resources. Matching animal requirements to nutrient value of feeds and using body condition score to fine tune the nutritional program of farm animals is also economically advantageous. Feed, whether purchased or produced on the farm, make up a large part of the expenses incurred in livestock production. Therefore, for profitable and healthy production, proper feeding and year-round management are essential. Without proper nutrition, it is impossible to produce a high-quality livestock, wean healthy heavy animals, and develop satisfactory flock replacements. All livestock producers should have a basic understanding of animal nutrition and should be familiar with common nutrition terms. Producers must also know the nutritional requirements of the animals at different stages of life. The ideal nutrition program supports optimum production, is efficient and economical, and minimizes related problems. In order to understand the fundamentals of livestock nutrition, the farmer must first know the nutrients essential for growth, production, and reproduction.
Quantifying the Productivity of Spent Oil Contaminated Soil Amended With Organic Wastes Using Productivity Index in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria (Published)
A study on quantifying the productivity of spent oil contaminated soil amended with organic wastes using productivity index (PI) was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The study involved a modification of Pierce et al. productivity index model with simultaneous exclusion of sufficiencies for aeration and electrical conductivity. The applicability and validity of the modified Pierce et al. productivity index model were determined using maize as a test crop. Result showed highly significant (r=0.96 at P<0.01) relationship between PI and grain yield of maize. The general mean PI and grain yield of maize were 0.32 and 0.94 tha-1for the treatments. The mean productivity indices with grain yield of maize were 0.20 and 0.50tha-1, 0.40 and 1.2otha-1, 0.26 and 0.80 tha-1 and 0.42 and 1.3tha-1 for control, burnt rice husk dust, unburnt rice husk dust and saw dust amended soils, respectively. The burnt rice husk dust which had highest prediction of 0.58 also predicted highest grain yield of maize of 2.2tha-1. The grain yield of maize followed productivity index predictions. Organic wastes could be recommended for attenuating problem of spent oil contamination of soil in Abakaliki.
MEASURE THE RELATIONSHIP B BETWEEN THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE AGRICULTURAL LABOR FORCE AND INDICATORS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN IRAQ USING THE STYLE FACTOR ANALYSIS (Published)
We discussed in this research the effect of the distribution of the agricultural labor force in Iraq by indicators of economic growth for the period (1986-2010) using (Factor Analysis) and through the use of statistical software SPPS The results of the analysis showed the presence of a strong and significant effect correlation coefficients, which gives a clear picture of the existence of inherent linear (multi-linear) between these independent variables and their impact in the approved variables that represented respectively (contribution of the agricultural gross domestic product to GDP (Y1), simple agricultural GDP growth rate (Y2), average per capita agricultural GDP (Y3), average per capita agricultural output growth rate (Y4), the productivity of agricultural worker (Y5). The research showed results that workers without a certificate had an impact in the high productivity of agricultural worker which was used as one of the indicators of economic growth, because the agricultural process in Iraq was built on the basis of gaining experience through practicing work, in addition to its dependence on the younger age groups as a result of failure of agricultural technologies that do not require from the agricultural worker to be College educated
Analysis of Labour Productivity and Constraints of Rubber Latex Exploitation among Smallholder Rubber Farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria (Published)
The objective of the study was conducted to analyze labour productivity and constraints of small holder rubber farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 300 rubber farmer using purposive and random sampling techniques. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Likert scale and labour productivity model. Result of the analysis revealed that wage tapping and share arrangement accounted for 43.33 percent and 36.33 percent respectively. Labour productivity analysis revealed a yield of 826,434.31 kg dry rubber per year and gross income of N81, 949,226.18 per year while the output per man day was 22.58 kg. Wage / man day was N377.78, while an average plantation owner reaps N1,860.56 after adjustments were made to wages and other costs of operation. The major constraints of rubber farmers included shortage and high cost of labour ranked the first major problem, inadequate credit as the second most important and significant constraint of rubber farmers while poor rubber prices and storage facilities problem were the third and the fourth most important significant problems faced by respondents. The study however recommended that rubber farmers should form cooperative societies and associations to enable them access production credit from commercial and Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) for rubber production.