Global Journal of Agricultural Research (GJAR)

EA Journals


Combining Ability Estimates and Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out to determine the combining ability estimates and heterosis for yield and yield components in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Nigeria. A seven plant diallel was planted across three locations using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Parameters assessed include days to 50% heading, plant heights, panicle lengths, panicle weights, number of seeds per panicle, number of productive tillers, number of panicle branches, yields per hectare, 100 grain weight. Assessment of GCA and SCA were carried out. Percentage heterosis were also determined for all traits studied. Significantly higher yield was recorded by P5, P4, P3, P6, P7, P2, and P1 with means of 5.86t/ha, 5.26 t/ha, 5.09 t/ha, 4.94 t/ha, 4.91 t/ha, 4.74 t/ha and 4.49 t/ha respectively across three locations studied. Hybrids P1xP5, P3xP6, P4xP7, P3xP5 produced significantly higher yields of 6.14 t/ha, 6.13 t/ha, 6.22 t/ha), 6.95 t/ha compared to their parental means. Similarly, significant difference were recorded in all other traits studied among parents and hybrids. GCA means squares were significantly higher than that of SCA for most of the traits studied. Additive variance was shown to predominate for plant heights and productive tillers while dominance was higher in yield per plants. Narrow sense heritability was higher on days to flowering, plant heights, panicle length and productive tillers. Yield in general was found to be significantly higher for combining ability in P5, P3 and P4. The overall GCA status for the ten agronomical traits studied showed that P5, P3, P1 and P2 are higher general combiners. Hybrids P3xP5, P5xP6, P2xP3, P5xP7 and P2xP7 produced higher total overall SCA, however, some produced more dominance on a particular trait than others. Both positive and negative heterosis for mid-parent, standard and better parent were also observed.

Citation: Ayuba S; Vange T; Ojo G.O.S.; OchigboA.E (2022) Combining Ability Estimates and Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Nigeria, Global Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol.10, No.5, pp.10-27

Keywords: Rice, Yield, combining ability, heterois

Varietal Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Field Performance and Yield of Some Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined eleven improved cassava varieties that could be recommended to farmers for higher productivity in order to meet the high demand for cassava produce in the sub region. The eleven cassava varieties include TMS 01/1371, TMS 96/1632, TMS 98/0510, TME 419, TMS 98/0581, TMS 01/1368, TMS 07/0593, TMS 98 / 0505, TMS 30572, TMS 92/0326 and TMS 95/0289. The field performance evaluated include: plant height, leaf number, number branched, fresh tuber yield and dry weight. Immediately after harvest, the tubers were analyzed for chemical composition such as hydrogen cyanide, percentage moisture content, fibre and starch for each of the varieties. Results of the study showed significant (P<0.05) variation on the performances of the various improve cassava varieties studied. The top seven high yielding varieties among the studied varieties intense of fresh tuber yield which is a product of high growth performance as revealed by the results of this experiment include TMS 01/1371 > TMS 01/1368 > TME 419 > TMS 98/0505 > TMS 98/0581 > TMS 30572 and TMS 92/0326 in decreasing order. Similarly, low cyanide content and early high dry matter content such as starch and fibre evaluation of the studied varieties significantly (P<0.05) revealed TME 419 as the best performed followed by TMS 98/0505 > TMS 30572 > TMS 01/1368 > TMS 01/1371 and TMS 07/0593 in decreasing order. These varieties could be recommended for rapid stem multiplication and distribution to farmers for cultivation and consumption in Rivers State and Nigeria at large to increase the quantity of cassava products. With these selected improved varieties, adequate agronomic practices and processing, cassava yield and product quality could be bettered with less land use and labor.


Keywords: Chemical composition., Growth Performance, Varieties, Yield, cassava

Effect of Spacings on the Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterrananea (L) Verde.) in Asaba Delta State (Published)

A field experiment was conducted at Teaching and Research Farm of Delta state University, Asaba Campus to study the effect of spacing on the growth and yields of Bambara groundnuts. The design was randomized complete block replicated three times. The spacing were  15×30 cm, 25×30 cm, 35×30 cm and 45×30 cm giving a plant population densities of 22,222, 13,333, 9,524 and 7,407 plants/ha, respectively. Results indicated that the number of pods plants-1 and grain yield/ha-1 of Bambara groundnuts increased with increased planting density. The study showed that Bambara groundnuts performed better at high densities for growth and yield than low densities. Plants with population density of 22,222 plants/ha (15×30 cm) had the best yield (3920 kg/ha), followed by 13,333 plants/ha (25×30 cm) with the yield of 3768kg/ha and the least 7,407 plants/ha population density (45x30cm) with yield of 2478kg/ha. It is recommended that Bambara groundnut should be planted at a spacing of 15 x 30 cm in a rain forest zone of Asaba, Delta State for maximum productivity.

Keywords: Bambara groundnut, Population, Yield, rainforest, spacing

Impact of Organic and Folia Fertilizer Application on the Growth, Yield and Medicinal Potential of Hybiscus Sabdariffa L (Published)

The effect of organic (poultry manure) and folia fertilizer application on the growth, yield and phytochemical composition of Hibiscus sabdariffa was investigated in planting pot experiments. Seeds of this plant were sown in soil treated with organic fertilizer at 40, 80 and 120 g separately and also supplemented with folia fertilizer two weeks after germination. Some seedlings with no organic fertilizer application were also sprayed with folia fertilizer, thus making seven treatments in all. No organic or folia fertilizer served as control.  Application of 120 g poultry manure in combination with folia fertilizer produced the highest plant height (98.23 cm), dry shoot weigh plant-1 (24.66 g) and number of fruits plant-1 (19.33). The highest leaf number plant-1 (164.00), fresh (28.06 g) and dry (4.43 g) fruit weight was recorded in plants treated with 120 g poultry manure. More so, alkaloids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, and tannins were found in the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa with or without organic and foliar fertilizer. However, treatments   with organic fertilizer singly or in combination with folia fertilizer significantly (p < 0.05) increased the phytochemical contents in the calyces of the plant. Interestingly, 120 g poultry manure had the greatest impact. The use of organic fertilizer in the cultivation of this medicinal plant should be encouraged as they could enhance its better growth, good yield and medicinal value under safe agricultural condition.

Keywords: Folia Spray, Growth, Medicinal Value, Organic Fertilizer, Yield


Six hybrid Chinese maize varieties with a local best were evaluated for their growth and yield performance with a view to adoption in South east agroecological zone of Nigeria. A Randomised Complete Block (RCBD) Design was used. The cultivars did not differ (p ≤0.05) significantly in some growth parameters, this included emergence percentage at 5DAP (days after planting), plant height at both 4WAP and 6WAP (weeks after planting). Tasseling and silking differed significantly, the exotic varieties tassled and silked better than the control at 8WAP and 10WAP respectively. The only significantly different yield parameters were the length and weight of undehusked cobs, circumference of dehusked cobs. The exotic varieties matured earlier than the control between 11 to 14WAP and 16WAP respectively. There was no significant difference in the grain yield between the maize varieties. The Chinese varieties did not show a marked difference in grain yield compared to the local

Keywords: Environment, Evaluation, Growth, Humid Tropics, Maize, Variety Trial, Yield

Evaluation of Cultivars and NKP Fertilizer Rates on Growth and Yield of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott on Plains of Nsukka, South Eastern Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)

An on –farm experiment was conducted in 2008 and repeated in 2009 cropping season at the Linkage Farm of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka to evaluate the growth and yield responses of five cultivars of taro (Colocasia esculenta) to different levels of NPK 15:15:15: fertilizer on plains of  Nsukka with the objectives of identifying best performing cultivars and optimum NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer rate. The experiment was laid out in a 5×6 factorial in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in which factor A is taro cultivars consisting of Nkpong, Odogolo, Nworoko, Ugwuta and Nachi while factor B is NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer rates with six levels which is included 0, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300kg/ha. Fisher’s least significant difference was applied to detect significant difference between two means at 5% probability level. The results showed that the mean rainfall for 2009 planting season was higher than that of 2008. The soil was texturally clayey and moderately acidic with a pH of 5.0 cultivars differed significantly on total yield with Nkpong and Nachi producing 33.25 (t/ha) and 31.08 (t/ha) in 2008 and 2009, respectively.

Application of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer at 200kg/ha significantly produced a total yield of 42.76 (t/ha) and 25.58 (t/ha) in 2008 and 2009, respectively.

Keywords: Cultivars, Growth, NPK Fertilizer, Taro, Yield


The study was conducted to find out the effect of Fadama 111 project on crop yield among the farmers participating in the project in Kwande Local Government of Benue State, Nigeria. Fadama 111 is the third phase of the Fadama Project in Nigeria, and is essentially an agricultural diversification project. The project which is demand-driven is funded by the World Bank, Federal Government, State and Local Governments in Nigeria. In conducting the study, 100 participants in the project were selected from Kwande Local Government of Benue State. To obtain a random sample, the stratified random sampling technique was used. The study area was stratified into four, namely: Nanev, Turan, Shangev-ya and Kyurav-ya clans. Twenty-five participants were selected from each stratum, giving a sample size of 100 farmers. Data for the study was collected with the use of a 5-point likert rating scale to enable the farmers rate the extent of increase in their crop yield. The data collected was analyzed using the mean and population t-test to test the significance of difference between sample and population means at 95 % confidence level (P ≤ 0.05). The difference between the sample mean of 4.2909 and population mean of 4.2920 was found to be insignificant. Therefore, the farmers were unanimous that their participation in Fadama 111 project has significantly increased their crop yield. The null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the sample and population mean responses of the participants regarding how their participation has affected their crop yield was accepted, while the alternative hypothesis was rejected. Some recommendations were made

Keywords: Crop, Effect, Fadama111, Farmers, Project, Yield

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