This paper attempts to examine terrorism as a threat to global security with a particular focus on the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). The ISIS was able to escalate the use of terrorism to a level beyond other terrorist groups in threatening global security. Their use of extreme violent tactics like beheadings, crucifixion and burning alive of their victims under their self-declared caliphate shocked the whole world and prompted them to rise in unison to curtail their reign of terror that spanned territories in Iraq and Syria. Terrorism has become a political weapon in the arsenal of the terrorists in terrorizing political opponents, causing fear and thereby threatening global peace and security. Status quo actors such as states often tend to abuse the term to define its actions and interests in opposition to those of the terrorists. The causes espoused by groups resorting to terrorism are varied which include ethno-nationatism and separation, left-wing revolution, religious or right-wing extremism etc. The frustration-aggression theory was used as a framework to explain these variables. The paper recommended among other options, the use of credible and actionable intelligence with military option to dismantle ISIS on a permanent basis. It concluded that until religion ceases to be a strong motivation for violence against others, terrorism will continue to pose a threat to global peace and security.
In the last decade, Nigeria has been under the yoke of hideous security challenges ranging from Boko Haram insurgency, herdsmen atrocities, kidnappings, hostage takings and abductions, militancy, banditry and the menace of cultism. By all objective standards, Nigeria could rightly be described as one country in a state of unconventional war in multiple fronts. The armed forces of Nigeria and indeed the entire security architecture have been strained and stretched to the limits. Successive Governments have tried to degrade and defeat this rampaging horde of terrorist groups without the desired results. There is therefore the urgent and compelling need for a paradigm shift from the strategy of military option and counter insurgency. A new model of engagement within the context of mass political education is being advocated by this paper as a viable strategy to subtly galvanize the society and defeat organized terrorism now ravaging Nigeria. To realize this objective, the paper adopts the historical and interpretive research method. The paper also recommends that Nigeria’s educational system should be revamped with emphasis on core values of patriotism, civic obligations and responsible citizenship.
Citation: Chike A. Ezenwa and Nwachukwu C. Igwilo (2021) Political Education and Nigeria’s Sustainable Security Goals, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.9, No.1, pp.52-59,
Economic Analysis of Terrorism in Nigeria (Published)
The different agitations and goals of the perpetrators of terrorism in Nigeria seem to define the root causes of terrorism in Nigeria. This study provides an in-depth economic analysis of terrorism in Nigeria, it linked terrorists costs-benefits matrices (as incentive to violence) to the root causes of terrorism such as; economic deprivation, socio-economic conditions, and population group with different identities. The effects of terrorism on Nigeria progress accounts for the dislocation and distortions of both industry and education in the affected parts of the country (this has also re-enforced terrorists activities). The study recommended among others that counter-terrorism measures must therefore take into account these root causes of terrorism in Nigeria with the view of making the price of terrorism and the opportunity costs of terrorism very high, so as to reduce the incentive to terrorists activities in Nigeria.
The Role of Sports Clubs in Reducing Terrorism in Tabuk Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Published)
In this article, the authors discuss the role of social youth clubs in reducing terrorism in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as applied to Tabuk region. Therefore, this paper tries to achieve these objectives: first, identify the role of social youth clubs in reducing terrorism among youth, second, identify statistical differences of said role according to the residence variable. A descriptive study through a social survey via questionnaire for 450 youth at seven local clubs: Alwattany, Alsqoor, Alhawraa, Alkhalidy, Diabaa, Haqle and Temaa, divided into 312 in the city and 128 in villages in Tabuk region in the Kingdom. The research used the simple random sample technique, by applying SPSS software which was then verified to test the indications of reliability and validity. It concluded that social youth clubs contribute to thereinforcement of relationship bonds among youth and to a positive change in intellectual, cultural, social and economic conditions through filled leisure time and free work that help achieve a sense of loyalty and belonging and therefore a reduction of terrorism.
This paper addresses the issue of terrorism in Nigeria, particularly in connection with the Boko Haram Islamist Sect. Terrorism, as a global phenomenon, is an ill-wind that blows no one any good. Recently, it has extended its ugly tentacles to Nigeria, precisely after the Presidential Election of April, 2011. Since then, Nigerian citizens have been on the defensive because of the great onslaught of man by the Boko Haram boys. The rampage has been on the increase and the attempt by the government to stop it has proved abortive. This has become of great concern to most Nigerians and the writer; hence, the emergence of this topic. The aims of this work are to highlight some of these religious riots encouraged by Boko Haram, to examine the root causes of the riots and to know their goals, organisational structure and sources of funding, and to proffer possible solutions that will make for the effective management of the crises.
HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY ON EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA (Published)
The study presented the historical analyses of the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on educational management in Northern Nigeria. Education is the key to national development in Nigeria. However, achieving quality education for all Nigerian need a safe, secured, violent free teaching and learning environment for school leaders, teachers, students and families in northern region of Nigeria. The study examined the historical overview of previous insurgent groups in Nigeria, The origin of Boko Haram insurgent group, the historical analysis of Boko Haram attacks on schools in other cities in Northern Nigeria, the effect on educational management. An important aspect of this article posited on the challenges facing school administrator, teachers and students in the region .It was therefore recommended that the federal government should show higher commitment in mobilizing the armed forces to the northern region and provide security in schools with bomb detectives’ equipment. It was also recommended that the religious leaders should play active role in preaching against the killings perpetrated by Boko Haram insurgent group and a special orientation to sensitize the people on security matters in all schools and their communities.
It is a fact that no other issue has occupied the centre stage of global discourses in recent times more than terrorism and its attendant counter. It is also a fact that the dominant strategy adopted against terrorism so far, and in the recent times is military action. Surprisingly however, just as terrorism has caused severe destruction to lives and property, just as it has dangerously threatened global peace and security, it is an observable fact that the adoption of military action against terrorism has always led to almost equal level of devastation within the affected territories. Thus, the search for an alternative strategy that can address the scourge, with minimal devastative consequences has become very necessary. The aim of this paper is to examine how effective use of language and other communication tools could be harnessed in this regard. The paper holds that terrorism is a product of loss of trust, mutual suspicion, betrayal, deceit among other factors. It is a reactionary mechanism for settling scores. The paper therefore, asserts that effective use of language holds great panacea towards engendering mutual trust and peaceful co-existence, and by extension, also, holds the potential to forestalling terrorism. The paper has adopted as its theoretical background, Critical Discourse Analyses. It is a relevant linguistic framework that seeks to analyse how language captures the power play in human co-existence. Furthermore, the paper has been segmented into internally related sub-headings for clarity and orderly presentation. The paper in its conclusion does not rule out the need for military action as option to counter terrorism. It however submits that there is need to look beyond military action for further solution, especially from the point of view of avoiding terrorism instead of fighting terrorism
The Nigerian Government has enjoyed cordial relationship with the government of the United States over the years especially given the former’s quantum of oil deposit and the latter’s access to exploiting same. However, the emergence of Boko Haram insurgence has been a source of concern to both countries especially as it portends danger to their interests. Despite the efforts of both countries in finding a lasting solution to the problem, the desired result is yet to be attained. In view of this, the study examined the effectiveness of the US security strategies in assisting Nigeria overcome the crisis of Boko Haram. Intractable conflict theory was adopted in arguing that it would be difficult to resolve the crisis of Boko Haram but it can, at least, be managed if proper strategies are put in place. Finally, the work discovered that in line with American foreign policy of zero tolerance to international terrorism, its strategies in assisting Nigeria overcome Boko Haram crisis have not been very effective.
The rise of terrorism in Africa is as a result of the instability, crisis, precarious situations and quagmires among others which are on top notch. These problems, though complex and disturbing, had followed a particular trend in term of terrorism with the rise of insurgents’ as Al-Qaeda, Boko Haram, Hamas and Hezbollah in various states in Africa. Solutions that have been propounded to the issues on terrorism and how to stop the insurgency have failed. The negativism and inherent political intrigues in solution findings towards resolving the terrorist question are but obvious. Thus, the bombing of the US Embassy in Kenya in 1998, the Bombing of the United Nations Headquarters, Abuja, 2009 have therefore brought terrorism to the highest rung of the ladder. Therefore, this paper therefore seeks to revisit the concept of terrorism in light of the terrorist groups in Nigeria, Mali and Kenya and also revisit the fundamentals which have been ignored by the agencies set up to curb the stigma of terrorism as well as propound strategies for covering terrorism.
The Impact of International Organized Crime and Criminalized States In Africa: A Global Threat To National Security (Review Completed - Accepted)
This paper provides an overview with regards to the influx of organized crime in Africa. Over time, international organized crime has evolved and thrived in major continents of the world, Africa for one of which the spread of drug trafficking (cocaine, heroin and the likes), human trafficking, diamond trade and its link with the financing of terrorism etc. is prominent. This paper will examine the development of organized crime in Africa, the political, social and economic conditions that encouraged the growth of this phenomenon, the role of the government and law enforcement agencies in curbing this phenomenon and in particular major forms of organized crime in Africa. This will create an avenue for further research in the near future.