Vigilantism and the Fight against Boko Haram in the Far North Region of Cameroon, 2014-2018 (Published)
This study sets out to explore the contributions of vigilante groups in the fight against Boko Haram and their role in the reduction of the atrocities of this Islamic sect in the Far North Region of Cameroon. The study makes use of qualitative approach in the design, data collection method and analysis. The main instrument for collecting data was interviews administered on 30 interviewees made up of public administrators, traditional chiefs (lamidos), military personnel and civilians in Amchide, Fotokol, Kaele, Maroua, Mora and Mokolo. These interviews were followed by the use of observations and focus group discussions. After analysing the data, the researchers found out that the activities of Boko Haram led to the re-emergence of vigilante groups in the region and such groups contributed significantly in the reduction of the violence of Boko Haram in many ways. They did this through the provision of intelligence reports to the military and the identification of suspects within their regions of operation. The research equally found out that vigilante groups were well structured in hierarchical form and members were recruited based on their mastery of their areas of operation. The study also showed that vigilante groups have become very popular in the region due to their assistance to the military and their contribution to security in the region; but they however pose as a source of insecurity in the future. Thus, the government blue print programme for the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of armed groups like Boko Haram should include all these vigilante groups that are operating in the region so as to prevent them from turning into thugs or armed robbers in a post Boko Haram setting.
The history of modern Nigerian State between 1960 and 2020 is characterized by violent and bloody conflicts such as the political crisis of the First Republic, the Nigerian civil war, the ethno-religious violence of the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, the Niger-Delta crisis, the Boko-Haram insurgency and the armed herdsmen menace. All these antecedents have tremendous adverse effects on the nation’s social, political and economic development with attendant consequences and costs on the art of governance in the nation and on other African countries. It is against the aforementioned concerns that this article isolates and examines the consequences of the activities of Boko-Haram insurgency and armed herdsmen, not only particularly in North-Eastern and Northern region of Nigeria, but the whole country at large. The paper adopts a multi-disciplinary approach and analyzes the effects of the two phenomena on the Nigerian people and government. The paper establishes the fact that Boko-Haram insurgency and armed herdsmen attacks in North-Eastern region of Nigeria have led to social, political and economic instability, not only on the Northern region, but Nigeria as a whole. The paper concludes by suggesting among many ways, a robust security network to completely neutralize the activities of the two groups in North-Eastern Nigeria.
The State and Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: The Challenge of National Security (2009-2015) (Published)
In the checklist of Nigeria’s security challenges, the Boko Haram insurgency stands out as the most disturbing and unsettling experience. Founded in 2002 by Mohammed Yusuf, an Orthodox Islamist proselyte, the Boko Haram sect has waged a relentless war of attrition against the Nigerian State. The group deployed improvised explosive devices, guerrilla warfare, suicide bombings, hostage taking, rape, and other heinous atrocities to undermine Nigeria’s sovereignty and national security. As a corollary to this pursuit, the paper is poised to unravel and expose the underlying factors through the context of the theory of post colonial state. The overriding tendency to cease and manipulate the state apparatus by the dominant power elite structurally disarticulates and weakens the state on the one hand and sustains the Boko Haram vicious campaigns of terror on the other hand. The paper therefore recommends a total reappraisal of the nature and character of the Nigerian state on the basis of entrenching a veritable democratic culture and de-emphasizing the frantic quest for political power by competing factions of the ruling class.
This paper addresses the issue of terrorism in Nigeria, particularly in connection with the Boko Haram Islamist Sect. Terrorism, as a global phenomenon, is an ill-wind that blows no one any good. Recently, it has extended its ugly tentacles to Nigeria, precisely after the Presidential Election of April, 2011. Since then, Nigerian citizens have been on the defensive because of the great onslaught of man by the Boko Haram boys. The rampage has been on the increase and the attempt by the government to stop it has proved abortive. This has become of great concern to most Nigerians and the writer; hence, the emergence of this topic. The aims of this work are to highlight some of these religious riots encouraged by Boko Haram, to examine the root causes of the riots and to know their goals, organisational structure and sources of funding, and to proffer possible solutions that will make for the effective management of the crises.
Politicisation of the Counter-Insurgence Operations in Nigeria: Implication for the Political Economy (Published)
Political partisanship is a very intriguing game. However, the tendency among some megalomaniacs to politicise sensitive national issues has undermined Nigeria’s national interest as well as exacerbated its fragile security. Many political actors mainly from the two major political parties— PDP and APC— were more inclined to using incendiary utterances in order to score cheap political followership in the build up to the 2015 General Election. The study relied on documentary evidence through which data were generated for the validation of its hypothesis. It found that the inclination among these politicians and ethnic jingoists to politicise the counter-insurgence operations has not only sustained the insurgency but also undermined Nigeria’s political economy. Basically, it recommended the adoption of a non-partisan counter-insurgence approach as a remedy for Boko Haram insurgence.
Examining the Boko Haram Insurgency in Northern Nigeria and the Quest for A Permanent Resolution Of The Crisis (Published)
The state of insecurity engendered by Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria, especially in the North-Eastern part of the country is quiet worrisome, disheartening and alarming. Terrorist attacks of the Boko Haram sect have resulted in the killing of countless number of innocent people and wanton destruction of properties that worth billions of naira through bombings. More worrisome however, is the fact that all the efforts of the Nigerian government to curtail the activities of the sect have not yielded any meaningful positive result. Thus, the Boko Haram scourge remains intractable to the government who appears helpless in curtailing/curbing their activities. The dynamics and sophistication of the Boko Haram operations have raised fundamental questions about national security, governance issue and Nigeria’s corporate existence. The major thrust of this paper is to investigate the Boko Haram insurgency in Northern Nigeria and to underscore the urgent need for a permanent resolution of the crisis. The paper argues that most of the circumstances that led to this insurgency are not unconnected with frustration caused by high rate of poverty, unemployment, weak governance, religious fanaticism among others. It also addresses the effects of the insurgency which among others include serious threat to national interest, peace and security, internal population displacement, violation of fundamental human rights, debilitating effects on the entrenchment of democratic principles in Nigeria among others. The paper recommends among others, the necessity to address poverty reduction, religious secularism and political re-orientation. The need for adequate collaboration and partnership between the government, non governmental organizations, civil society organization as well as the individuals is also advocated. Finally, the need for the re-evaluation of the country’s domestic and foreign policies as a means of combating the menace of this domestic terrorism is also stressed.
HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY ON EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA (Published)
The study presented the historical analyses of the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on educational management in Northern Nigeria. Education is the key to national development in Nigeria. However, achieving quality education for all Nigerian need a safe, secured, violent free teaching and learning environment for school leaders, teachers, students and families in northern region of Nigeria. The study examined the historical overview of previous insurgent groups in Nigeria, The origin of Boko Haram insurgent group, the historical analysis of Boko Haram attacks on schools in other cities in Northern Nigeria, the effect on educational management. An important aspect of this article posited on the challenges facing school administrator, teachers and students in the region .It was therefore recommended that the federal government should show higher commitment in mobilizing the armed forces to the northern region and provide security in schools with bomb detectives’ equipment. It was also recommended that the religious leaders should play active role in preaching against the killings perpetrated by Boko Haram insurgent group and a special orientation to sensitize the people on security matters in all schools and their communities.
The Nigerian Government has enjoyed cordial relationship with the government of the United States over the years especially given the former’s quantum of oil deposit and the latter’s access to exploiting same. However, the emergence of Boko Haram insurgence has been a source of concern to both countries especially as it portends danger to their interests. Despite the efforts of both countries in finding a lasting solution to the problem, the desired result is yet to be attained. In view of this, the study examined the effectiveness of the US security strategies in assisting Nigeria overcome the crisis of Boko Haram. Intractable conflict theory was adopted in arguing that it would be difficult to resolve the crisis of Boko Haram but it can, at least, be managed if proper strategies are put in place. Finally, the work discovered that in line with American foreign policy of zero tolerance to international terrorism, its strategies in assisting Nigeria overcome Boko Haram crisis have not been very effective.