International Journal of Public Health, Pharmacy and Pharmacology (IJPHPP)

EA Journals


Evaluation of antibiotic use patterns among farmers and antibiogram from livestock wastes and fish pond effluents in selected animal farms in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The extensive and misuse of antibiotics in animal production has become a public health threat. The evaluation of antibiotic use pattern among farmers and antibiogram from livestock wastes and effluent from animal farms was conducted in Cross River State. A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken with 379 animal production farmers and multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the selection of farms and respondents. Bacteriological analysis of animal wastes samples and antibiotics susceptibility testing was also conducted. Results revealed that 66.8% of farmers had a good knowledge on the use of antibiotics and its resistance. Majority (91.0%) of the farmers used antibiotics in their animal farms and for purposes of growth promotion, treatment of disease and prevention. Tetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin, cotrimoxazole, gentamycin and vancomycin were the most frequently used groups of antibiotics. A total of 240 bacteria were isolated and the percentage occurrence of bacterial isolates were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%), Escherichia coli (12.5%), Staphylococus aureus (10.8%), while Staphylococcus hominis (2.1%) had the least prevalence of occurrence. All the isolates showed multi-drugs resistance, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest resistance to several antibiotics commonly used by farmers (80.8% to chloramphenicol, 80.8% to vancomycin and 73.1% of resistance to tetracycline). Statistical analysis of sociodemographic variables with farmers’ knowledge and antibiotics use showed that respondents’ level of education, years of farming experience, and farm type, were statistically significant (p<0.05). There is a need to improve farmers’ knowledge of antibiotics use and the possible consequences of their inappropriate use of antibiotics in farms.

Keywords: Bacteria, Knowledge, animal farm wastes, antibiogram, antibiotics use, multi-drug resistance

Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Testicular Self Examination among Male Undergraduate Students in Ekiti State University (Published)

About half of men never or seldom check their testicles which has led many to late detection of testicular cancer, howbeit the dramatic increase in cancer-related mortality and morbidity is avoidable and curable if detected in its earliest stages. This study assessed the knowledge attitude and practice of testicular self-examination among male undergraduate students in Ekiti State University. A descriptive cross-sectional survey research design was used for the study. The study population consists of Male Undergraduate Students in department of Computer Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti state. The sample size was determined with the use of Taro Yamane’s method which yielded sample size of 290. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample size. A semi-structured questionnaire administered via online goggle form was used to collect data. The collected data was coded and analyzed using SPSS version 25. The two – null hypothesis in the study was tested using Chi-square, at 0.05 level of significance. The research found out that 59.0 percent of respondents had an unfavourable view of TSE, whereas 41.0 percent had a favourable view. Even though the respondents had a high level of information, that didn’t seem to have any effect on their attitudes, which suggests that people aren’t willing to adopt the desirable steps that may lead to the early identification of testicular cancer. The findings revealed that there is no significant (p = 0.67) association between level of knowledge of TSE and the practice, also no significant (p < 0.001) association between attitude of TSE and the practice. It was recommended among others that TSE has to be a standard part of medical checkups. Health education on TSE should be provided to all young men for any reason when they visit a healthcare facility, along with a patient pamphlet that details the suggested process, instruments, and frequency of practise.

Keywords: Knowledge, Student, attitude, practice, testicular self-examination

Impact of Health Education on Hypertension Knowledge, Motivation and Preventive Practices towards Hypertension Control among Pre-Hypertensive Traders in Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)

Undiagnosed cases of hypertension remain prevalent in developing countries. Insufficient and lack of knowledge of hypertension and its risk factors limit its proper management and healthy self-care practices. Therefore, this study assessed effect of health-education intervention on hypertension related knowledge, motivation and preventive practices among traders in Lagos State. Quasi-experimental design was employed with seventy participants forming experimental and control group each in major markets of Alimosho and Ajeromi-Ifelodun local government areas of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used. Interviewer administered questionnaire was developed. Weight (kg) and height (m) were measured by bathroom weighing scale and sphygmomanometer respectively. Participants’ body mass index (kg/m2) was calculated. Data were collected at baseline, immediate post intervention and sixth week of follow-up; analyzed by SPSS version 21.0 with level of significance placed at p< 0.05. Frequency, percentage, means and standard deviation were used to describe findings while independent t-test was used for inferential statistics. Treatment effect were judged on t-distribution and Cohen’s d effect size. Participants’ mean age in experimental and control groups was 44.91±8.82 years and 44.37±8.80 years respectively. More than a quarter (40.0%) in experimental group and 34.3% in control group had tertiary education. Overweight is 22.9% and 20.0%, while obesity is 41.4% and 57.1% in experimental and control groups respectively. Knowledge, motivation and preventive practices significantly increased after intervention among experimental group more than control group (p< 0.05). Information-Motivation Behavioral (IMB) model promotes hypertension knowledge, motivation and preventive practices.


Keywords: Health education, Knowledge, Motivation, pre-hypertension, preventive practices, traders

Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening Uptake Among Female Non-Health Care Providers in Two Selected General Hospitals in Lagos State (Published)

Cervical cancer is an abnormal growth of the cells of the cervix which is the lower-most part of the uterus. This cancer can spread to other parts of the body, including the lungs, liver, bladder, vagina, and rectum.  Therefore, this research was aimed at assessing the knowledge of cervical cancer prevention and screening uptake among female non-health care providers working in various departments in two general hospitals in Lagos. Annually, in Nigeria 14,943 cases of cervical cancer are reported: out of these 10,403 women die leading to 28 deaths daily from cervical cancer. However, this needless death can be prevented if the cases are diagnosed early through the cervical screening, knowledge and uptake. The research adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey. The population comprises of 350 female non-health care providers from two selected general hospitals in Lagos Island. The sample size of 165 was determined using Leslie Kish formula. A self-developed and validated questionnaire was used to collect data. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that 108 (65.5%) of the respondents knew that abnormal vagina bleeding and bleeding after intercourse are symptoms of cervical cancer while 102 (61.8%) showed that having multiple sexual partners is among the factors for acquiring cervical cancer. Furthermore 113 (68.5%) showed that cervical cancer is preventable while 118 (71.5%) believes that regular cervical screening can prevent cervical cancer and 148 (89.7%) were interested in participating in cervical cancer screening. The knowledge and prevention revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship between them. The research concluded that despite the adequate knowledge of cervical cancer screening as reported by the result, the level of screening is still low. It is hereby recommended that female non-health care providers should do cervical cancer screening regularly.

Keywords: Knowledge, Prevention, and screening processes., cervical cancer, female non –health care providers

Effect of Health Education Interventions on Knowledge Of Malaria Prevention Among Pregnant Women In Selected Hospitals In Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

The study examined the effect of health education interventions on knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women in selected hospitals in Oyo State, Nigeria. The research design adopted for this study was the quasi-experimental design. The population of this study was pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in the selected health care facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. The sample size formula was used to derive 80 respondents. A multi stage sampling procedure was used to select the respondents for the study. The instrument used for the pre and post-intervention was a structured questionnaire. The face and content validity of the instrument was ensured by experts in Public Health. The collection of data was done in three phases: the baseline or pre-intervention phase which was for one week; the immediate post-intervention was for eight weeks (intervention was between the 3rd to 10th week), and the third phase which was the outcome evaluation at the 12th week follow up. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data computation. The result revealed that respondents’ knowledge on malaria prevention among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in selected hospitals was low at the pre-intervention stage for both the experimental group and the control group. However, the knowledge increased significantly at the immediate post intervention and at the 12th week follow-up for the experimental group while the control group remained the same. It was recommended among others that nurses should regularly organise health education on malaria prevention for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics.

Citation: Adeniji, Oluwakemi I.  and Akinboye, Dora O. (2022)   Effect of Health Education Interventions on Knowledge Of Malaria Prevention Among Pregnant Women In Selected Hospitals In Oyo State, Nigeria, International Journal of Public Health, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 7, No.2, pp.9-18



Keywords: Health Education Intervention, Knowledge, Pregnant Women, malaria prevention

Knowledge and Help Seeking Behaviors for Menopausal Symptoms among Female Staff Working in a Selected University in Ogun State (Published)

Citation: Eunice Abimbola Ojo, Oluwatosin. O. Ope-Babadele,  Mary Ayodeji  Gbenga-Epebinu, Rachel Omolara Aina and   Jolayemi Oluwaseyi Damilola  (2022) Knowledge and Help Seeking Behaviors for Menopausal Symptoms among Female Staff Working in a Selected University in Ogun State, International Journal of Public Health, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 7, No.1, pp.14-28,

The menopausal years is a very important phase in a woman’s life and it is of good benefit to the women who engage in help seeking behaviors so as to be able to cope well with the phase. The purpose of this study was to see the knowledge and help seeking behaviors among female staffs working in the hall of residence at a selected university in Ogun state. This cross – sectional study was conducted in Babcock University on 102 female staffs who worked in the halls of residence. Total enumeration was used and purposive sampling method was used to select participants. A self-designed questionnaire was used for data collection. The research instrument was validated by experts of Nursing Science and Tests & Measurement. Reliability of the instrument was ascertained through test re-test and it was found to be reliable. Descriptive statistics were used to answer the research questions while inferential statistics of chi-square and correlation were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The finding revealed 35% of the women had low knowledge while 65% of them had very high knowledge of menopause. Also, it was discovered that 82% of the respondents have low help seeking behavior while only 18% had high help seeking behavior. This could be as a result of the response of the respondents where 71% of the respondents reported that they do not believe in seeking help as Menopause is a natural aging process. Many of the respondents, about 74% had low effect of menopause on daily activities while only 26% had high effects on daily activity. Mostly the women whose menopause symptoms do affect their daily activities do so with their families and homes. The study also showed that there is no significant association between knowledge and help seeking behavior (r = -0.093, p>0.05) and there is no significant association between knowledge and the effects of menopause on daily activities (Chi (2.196), p>0.05). (r =0.148, p>0.05). It was recommended among others that health organizations and health workers need to improve their awareness efforts to include mainstream media and social media to help women have a better understanding of menopause symptoms.

Keywords: Knowledge, female staff, help-seeking behaviors, menopausal symptoms

Self-efficacy beliefs and general motivation as determinant to exercise behaviour by pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the University College Hospital, Ibadan (Published)

This study examined self-efficacy beliefs and general motivation as determinant to exercise behaviour by pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Descriptive survey research design was used to collect data from respondents. The sample comprised 250 respondents who were selected from the antenatal Clinic in University College Hospital Ibadan. The results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs and general motivation are determinants of exercise behaviour among the pregnant women. It is therefore recommended that more efforts should be made towards educating pregnant women especially those who are not yet participating in physical activities during pregnancy.

Keywords: Belief, Efficacy, Knowledge, antenatal

Concept and factors associated with infertility among married couples in Obonnoma community, Akuku-toru Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was aimed at determining the concept and factors associated with infertility among married couples in Obonnoma community of Rivers State. A descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted at the Family Planning Clinic of the community’s health center between July and December, 2017, among 76 persons, out of 96 married couples that attended the facility. The mean score for knowledge of infertility showed that 39(51.32%) respondents had good knowledge, while 37(48.68%) had poor knowledge. Also, 41(53.95%) had positive attitude towards infertility while 35(46.05%) had negative attitude. Semen abnormalities, assumed spiritual forces, unknown cause, undescended testes, erectile dysfunction, menstrual disorders, previous reproductive tract infections/STIs, age, improper/poor sexual practices and fallopian tube dysfunction were the main factors indicated to be associated with infertility. Infertility is a common reproductive problem, with about one-fifth of the world population affected. There is still low poor knowledge about the true factors associated with it, hence, a lot of misconceptions, such as beliefs that IUCDs and supernatural powers can cause infertility, thus, most affected persons seek treatment from faith or traditional healers. Alternative medicine remains a popular option for couples, when they are unsatisfied with orthodox medicine. There is also poor knowledge about treatment options available, with cultural and religious beliefs masking most of such, resulting in reduced acceptability of assisted reproductive technologies. Vigorous enlightenment, especially, of rural dwellers, is pertinent and will produce better results of acceptability and utilization of available options.

Keywords: Belief, Infertility, Knowledge, attitude, orthodox

Scroll to Top

Don't miss any Call For Paper update from EA Journals

Fill up the form below and get notified everytime we call for new submissions for our journals.