International Journal of Education, Learning and Development (IJELD)

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Communication and Managerial Competencies Needed for Successful Entrepreneurship by Female Polytechnic Students as Perceived by Stakeholders in South Western Nigeria (Published)

Citation: Titus. A. Umoru and Abosede B. Ademiluyi (2022) Communication and Managerial Competencies Needed for Successful Entrepreneurship by Female Polytechnic Students as Perceived by Stakeholders in South Western Nigeria, International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, Vol. 10, No.5, pp.17-32

The study investigated communication and managerial competencies needed for successful entrepreneurship as perceived by stakeholders in south western Nigeria. The researchers employed mixed method design involving the use of qualitative technique within a dominant quantitative design. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population consisted of registered female entrepreneurs, female Office Technology and Management students and lecturers in public polytechnics in southwestern Nigeria. The instrument for quantitative data collection was a questionnaire while a semi structured interview was used to collect qualitative information for the study. The instrument was administered with the assistance of six research assistants.  Quantitative data was analyzed with percentage, mean rating, standard deviation, ANOVA and t-test while the qualitative data was analyzed with content analysis.  The result of the study showed that there are gender sensitive communication competencies and gender specific managerial competencies which female polytechnic undergraduates must master if they are to prosper in the patriarchal business environment of southwestern Nigeria.  Based on these findings, the study recommended the incorporation of gender specific items in the entrepreneurship curricula of polytechnic female students.


Keywords: Management, Polytechnic, communication, competencies and entrepreneurship

Utilization of Electronic Human Resource Management among University Administrators in Rivers and Bayelsa States, Nigeria (Published)

The study examined the utilization of electronic human resource management among university administrators in Rivers and Bayelsa States, Nigeria. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The population of the study comprised forty-six (46) Deans in the six (6) public universities in Rivers and Bayelsa States, Nigeria. A sample size of forty-one (41) Deans representing 89% of the entire population using a simple random sampling technique was taken. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Instrument titled, “Utilization of Electronic Human Resource Management among University Administrators Scale (UEHRMAUAS) was validated. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was 0.82 using Cronbach Alpha Statistics which guaranteed the use of the instrument for the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while the hypothesis was tested using z-test statistics at 0.05 alpha level. It was found among others that, utilization of human resource management among university administrators in Rivers and Bayelsa States in Nigeria has improved the administrative process in the universities. Recommendation among others is that the university management should ensure the provision of internet connected computers in all the offices in the universities.

Keywords: Management, Utilization, electronic human resource, university administrators

Influence of Mentoring On Professional Commitment of Business Educators in Tertiary Institutions in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated mentoring and professional commitment of business educators in Edo and Delta States. One research question guided the study. Two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A population of 231business educators was used for the study because the size was manageable. The instrument used for the study was a 10 item questionnaire. Cronbach Alpha was used to determine the reliability of the instrument and the result yielded aggregate reliability co-efficient of 0.87. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research question. The t-test was used to test null hypothesis 1 and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test hypothesis 2. The finding revealed that mentoring practice did not influence the professional commitment of business educators in Edo and Delta States. The result of hypotheses testing showed no significant difference on professional commitment of business educators either by gender or types of tertiary institutions in Edo and Delta States. It was, therefore, recommended among others that management of tertiary institutions in Edo and Delta State especially of department of business education programme should compulsorily institute formal mentoring practice in addition to the available informal professional mentoring for business educators. This could help to give more opportunities to the young/inexperienced business educators to learn from the wealth of experience of the older and more experienced business educators so as to enhance their professional commitment. Also, management especially of department of business education programme need to urgently improve on the present professional mentoring practice for business educators by encouraging use of multiple mentoring among business educators in different tertiary institutions in Edo and Delta States.

Keywords: Management, business educators, professional mentoring

Principals ‘management of Internally Generated Funds to Enhance Public Secondary Schools’ Financing for Sustainable National Development (Published)

This study aimed at investigating the ways management of internally generated funds enhanced secondary school financing for sustainable national development. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study comprised all public secondary schools principals/vice principals. A study sample of 539 respondents was used to generate data for the study. Three null hypotheses were formulated to be tested in the study. A 24 item questionnaire titled “Principals’ Management of Internally Generated Funds for Improved School Financing Questionnaire” (PMIGFISFQ) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated, and its reliability established at 0.89. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis. The null hypotheses testing revealed significant relationship between management of school internally generated funds and schools financing improvement for sustainable national development. It was found out that principals’ management skills in budgeting, auditing and keeping financial records significantly relate to school financing improvement. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that Government through Ministry of Education and secondary Education Board should organized seminar and workshops for school principals to sharpen their skills in financial management of internally generated revenue as a strategy for improved secondary schools’ financing for sustainable national development.

Keywords: Internally generated funds, Management, school financing and National development.

Organization and Management of Early Childhood Education Program: An Evaluation on Subur Sejahtera Kindergarten, Kendari, Indonesia (Published)

The objective of this research is to describe the implementation of early childhood education program (ECEP) at Kindergarten of Subur Sejahtera Kendari, Indonesia. This research uses qualitative method, with Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) model evaluation design adopted from Daniel Stufflebeam (2003). The results of the study indicate that: (1) the context component covering the legal basis of the program has been fulfilled; (2) the input components that include human resources in the form of teachers and staff have been fulfilled, with appropriate academic qualifications, and adequate facilities and infrastructures; (3) the learning process implementation component has shown sufficient circumstances in accordance with those required in the national curriculum; and (4) product components covering output and outcomes are in good category. Thus, it can be concluded that the implementation of ECEP at Subur Sejahtera Kindergarten, Indonesia is in accordance with national standards of early childhood education. The suggestions that can be put forward are: (1) the competence of the kindergarten teachers still need to be improved; (2) the quality of teaching and learning process need to be improved; and (3) the teaching and learning process need to be managed more effectively by taking into account the developmental aspects required in accordance with national standards of education.

Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Management, Organization, Output, input.

The Impact of Communication Gap in the Management of Primary Schools in Anaocha L.G.A of Anambra State (Published)

The study investigates the impact of communication gap in the Management of primary schools in Anaocha local government area of Anambra state, with the purpose of finding out its causes, impact and strategies. The study employed descriptive survey research design. The population used for this study is 685 teachers from 50 public primary schools in Anaocha L.G.A of Anambra State. Using the simple random sampling technique, 150 teachers were drawn from the 50 public primary schools in Anaocha L.G.A. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire validated by three experts, which contained 15 items based on the three research questions formulated for the study. Meanwhile, it was subjected to reliability testing using spearman’s formula, in which 0.82 was obtained as the reliability index (very high). Data collected was analysed using mean. Findings revealed the impact of communication gap in the management of public primary school as inaction, while misinterpretations, bad work relationship, lack of knowledge are identified as the causes. It was observed that when handbook of information for teachers is been provided, there will be an effective communication in the school as it will let them know the various activities in the school. To this end, the researchers recommended that head-teachers should use appropriate media for communication and manage barriers to effective communication adequately as it will help them in improving communication in school. Implications and suggestion for further studies were also made.

Keywords: Communication Gaps, Management, Primary schools.

Principal’s Application of Management by Objective in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)

The study examined principals’ application of management by objective in the administration of schools in Nigeria. Six research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The study sample comprised 204 principals. Data were collected using a questionnaire titled application of Management by Objective schools. Data collected were analyzed using mean (x) and standard deviation while t-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings between the male and female principals in the application of management by objective in schools. Secondly, there was a significant difference between the mean ratings of urban and rural principals in favor of the urban principals. The study recommended that Secondary Education Board should on regular basis organize seminar workshops for serving principals highlighting the place of MBO in school administration.

Keywords: Administration and Management by Objective, Management

Job Stress among School Administrators and Teachers in Nigerian Secondary Schools and Technical Colleges (Published)

The paper examines stress, job or vocational and workplace stress. It views stress as the responses the body makes while striving to maintain equilibrium and deal with the demands of life. It is a psycho-physiological process which results from the interaction of the individual with the environment and results in disturbances caused to the physiological, psychological and social systems. Job or occupational stress refers to the mental and physical condition which affects an individual’s productivity at the workplace, as well as his effectiveness, personal health and quality of work. Role ambiguity, poor relations with boss, work overload, thwarted ambition and job insecurity as workplace sources of stress have been identified. Where teachers and school heads are under stress, there will be poor teaching quality, low students’ satisfaction and low turnover on the overall performance. The paper holds that teachers’ lives are often gravely affected by stress which leads to physical ill-health such as headache, stomach upset, aches and pains. Severe and unchecked stress leads to severe ill conditions like high blood pressure, diabetes, stroke and heart disease. In critical cases, stress can lead to death. The paper identifies wrong ways to deal with stress to include smoking, using pills or drugs to relax, too much drinking of alcohol and other intoxicating drinks, filling up every minute of the day with activities in order to avoid problems, oversleeping, and transferring one’s stressful condition on others. Appropriate strategies to deal with stress, especially for teachers and school heads include regular medical checkups, exercises like jogging, bicycling and muscle relaxation. In addition, proper time management, having a positive outlook on life and bothering less about things one has control over go a long way in assisting teachers and school heads to deal with stress.

Keywords: Equilibrium, Examines Stress, Job Stress, Management, Workplace Stress


The overall educational infrastructure is grossly inadequate in most of the Third World Countries, Kenya in particular; more so resources to institute appropriate environmental education are, for the most part, simply not available, even when this education is recognized as a desirable innovation. This paper sought to interrogate the current institutional environmental and educational arrangements and practices which are pertinent to the sustainable management of the Nandi Hills Forests, in Kenya. A mixed methodological design which incorporated both qualitative and quantitative methodologies was embraced. The methods included concurrent triangulation and nested/embedded designs. A four-tier analysis was carried out once all the data had been coded and grouped. This paper concludes that the contribution of indigenous knowledge to sustainable management of the Nandi Hills Forest is remarkable. This study brings to light the essence of environmental education that is incorporative of the community through formal and informal approaches in forest knowledge acquisition and management of the Nandi Hills Forests. As it is widely agreed that environmental education is the most effective means that society possesses for confronting the challenges of environmental degradation (Palmer, 1998), this study attempts to provide the necessary impetus both for the local community, the government and non-governmental institutions to understand and become involved in an integrated manner in the conservation of what remains on this ecosystem

Keywords: Conservation, Environmental Education., Formal education, Informal Education, Management


The purpose of this study was to improve the notes taking skills of Tertiary students’ and to design strategies to help them take notes. To achieve this objective, the researchers used methodology which includes research design and sampling method. The research was conducted at Accra Polytechnic. The Secretaryship and Management Studies students were sampled to represent all students. One hundred and twenty correspondents were used for the study. Observation, questionnaire, interview, pre-test and post-test were some of the data collection methods used by the researchers. The data was collected during the pre-intervention stage. Tables and charts were used to analyze the data collected. The result of the study showed those students’ notes taking skills may be improved through dictations, spelling drills and sufficient time given students for taking down notes. The research was concluded with recommendations to help improve notes taking of tertiary students

Keywords: Accra, Dictation, Management, Note Taking Skills, Techniques, pre-intervention, secretaryship

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