International Journal of Education, Learning and Development (IJELD)

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A Critical Review of Micro-Management Practices: Constraints and Endorsed Measures in Selected Public Secondary Schools in Morogoro Municipal, Tanzania


The study aims to give a broad knowledge of Micro-Management Practices focusing on constraints and endorsed measures in public secondary schools in Morogoro Municipal. Tanzania. This study adopted a convergent design under a mixed research approach. The study also grounded on contingency theory advocated by Fred Fiedler in 1958 involved 5 heads of schools and 63 teachers. Self-distributed questionnaires and semi-structured interview guides were employed to collect reliable data from respondents. Validity and reliability were ensured through the involvement of three experts from JUCo, Cronbach Alpha technique, and member checking techniques. A simple linear regression was used to test the hypothesis. The study found a shortage of financial resources, technological-related constraints, resistance to changes among teachers, and ineffective communication between school management and teachers.  The study also revealed the effective utilization of resources, government support, and regular meetings as strategies employed by heads of schools in resolving the constraints above. The tested hypothesis shows no significant relationship exists between micro-management constraints and measures taken to resolve the constraints facing heads of schools in fostering micro-management in Morogoro Municipal. The study concluded that limited leadership skills among the heads of schools and resource constraints are the main challenges impeding the implementation of micro-management in secondary schools for effective student achievement in the study area. Furthermore, the study recommended capacity-building programs that enhance heads of schools’ micro-management practices for quality teaching and learning.

Keywords: Constraints, Management, Measures, head of school, micro-management

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