International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability (IJDES)

EA Journals


Fiscal Deficit and External Debt: The Nigerian Experience (Published)

This study seeks to ascertain the impact of fiscal deficit on external debt in Nigeria with a focus on determining the long run relationship between fiscal deficit and external debt, as well as to ascertain the direction of causality between fiscal deficit and external debt. The model employed in this study is the Error Correction Mechanism; Granger causality test was used to ascertain the direction of causality. The time frame for this study spanned between the years 1981-2019. This study found that fiscal deficit is not a significant determinant of external debt in Nigeria. Also, the variables of gross domestic product, degree of openness, exchange rate was found to be insignificant factors determining external debt except inflation which was significant in determining external debt in Nigeria. Furthermore, there was neither a uni-directional nor bi-directional causality between external debt and fiscal deficit. Although, there is causality flowing from budget deficit and degree of openness as well as budget deficit and gross domestic product. However, it was suggested that policies be implemented that will enhance the channeling of funds from the external sector to productive sectors of the economy in order to ensure diversification and revenue generation thereby ultimately lessening the external debt burden that Nigeria is faced with. Finally, there is need for fiscal discipline and fiscal prudence if fiscal deficits would be a true determinant of the size of external debt accumulated in the country.

Citation: Shofade Oladapo Daniel and Kazeem Adebola Ibrahim (2021) Fiscal Deficit and External Debt: The Nigerian Experience, International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability, Vol.9, No.3, pp.1-18



Keywords: Budget, External Debt, Fiscal Policy, economic growth, fiscal deficit

Higher Institutions Funding and the Nigerian Economy (Published)

This study examines funding tertiary institutions and Nigerian growth perspective. The specific objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of tertiary institutions funding on national development in Nigeria. An ordinary least squares estimation technique was used in the study to evaluate the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The result of experiment indicates that funding is a veritable tool for tertiary institutions growth in Nigeria. The result also shows that government capital expenditure funding is not statistically significant in the growth process. It was recommends that the government has to invest more on the education sector as well as ensuring that the resources are properly managed and used for the development of education services. The study concludes that funding of higher education in Nigeria needs to be improved upon especially in the area of capital expenditures funding. This is as a result of the increasing need and demand for specialized services in different sectors within the academic institutions.

Keywords: Budget, Education, Funding, Government Expenditure, Higher Institutions, economic growth

Analysis of Internally Generated Revenue and Capital Expenditure Utilization in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The study analyzed the relationship between internally generated revenue and capital expenditure utilization in Cross River State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2015. Secondary data sought from Cross River State budget office, internal revenue service and ministry of finance were used for the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the relationship between internally generated revenue and capital expenditure utilization in Cross River State. Findings from the study indicate that increase in government expenditure without corresponding revenue will widen the budget deficit. It is recommended from the findings that; the Cross River State government should increase the size of its internally generated revenue in order to accommodate the capital expenditure of the state. The state government should diversify its economy and explore especially the non oil minerals sector of the state economy so as to correct the disparity between revenue and expenditure and reduce the attendant budget deficit. Expenditure reforms analysis should be considered vis-à-vis taxes and all other revenues sources. This will help set targets for revenue mobilization and utilization as well as expenditure spreading over the entire state economy. The Cross River State government in order to be sustainable in its development strive must develop the internally generated revenue base, promote fiscal prudence in the management of its resources, enhance infrastructures, eschew corruption and unsustainable spending as well as sustain it capital votes. The Cross River State government should continue to increase its aggregate revenue mostly from internally generated revenue base, since only revenue from internal sources can boost the state income given the dwindling allocations from the federation account. The government should go a step further in intensifying efforts at developing other sources of revenue in order to insulate the economy from the volatility associated with the oil revenues

Keywords: Budget, Capital Expenditure, Cross River State, Internally Generated Revenue

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