International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability (IJDES)

EA Journals

Cross River State

Land Grabbing: Implications of 1978 Land Use Act on Rural Livelihood Sustainability in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

Land grabbing is an unprecedented phenomenon affecting rural areas and their livelihood. Land grabbing and or rush has been observed to an aged long practice by the feudal lords, big investors and the elites in several areas and communities. The present study examined the impacts posed by the 1978 Land Use Act (LUA) on livelihood sustainability options of the rural dwellers. Data were gathered through the administration of 100 structured questionnaire copies to rural dwellers mainly chief council, youths and women of Ekong Anaku, Mbarakom in Akamkpa L.G.A and Ibogo community in Biase L.G.A. Similarly, 40 oral interviews were conducted across the sampled communities. Results obtained revealed that land grabbing was in existence in Cross River State and had had substantial influence on the livelihood of rural dwellers. This observation on land grab was necessitated by the 1978 land-use act which gave the state government the absolute right to own and administer resources without recourse to free prior information consent (FPIC). The act was observed to bring about land loss and food security issues in the area. Based on the result, it was recommended that grabbed lands should be reallocated back to the communities or a fresh memorandum of understanding re-entered between the companies, government and the impacted communities.

Keywords: 1978 Land Use Act, Cross River State, Land Grabbing, Rural Livelihood

Analysis of Internally Generated Revenue and Capital Expenditure Utilization in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The study analyzed the relationship between internally generated revenue and capital expenditure utilization in Cross River State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2015. Secondary data sought from Cross River State budget office, internal revenue service and ministry of finance were used for the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the relationship between internally generated revenue and capital expenditure utilization in Cross River State. Findings from the study indicate that increase in government expenditure without corresponding revenue will widen the budget deficit. It is recommended from the findings that; the Cross River State government should increase the size of its internally generated revenue in order to accommodate the capital expenditure of the state. The state government should diversify its economy and explore especially the non oil minerals sector of the state economy so as to correct the disparity between revenue and expenditure and reduce the attendant budget deficit. Expenditure reforms analysis should be considered vis-à-vis taxes and all other revenues sources. This will help set targets for revenue mobilization and utilization as well as expenditure spreading over the entire state economy. The Cross River State government in order to be sustainable in its development strive must develop the internally generated revenue base, promote fiscal prudence in the management of its resources, enhance infrastructures, eschew corruption and unsustainable spending as well as sustain it capital votes. The Cross River State government should continue to increase its aggregate revenue mostly from internally generated revenue base, since only revenue from internal sources can boost the state income given the dwindling allocations from the federation account. The government should go a step further in intensifying efforts at developing other sources of revenue in order to insulate the economy from the volatility associated with the oil revenues

Keywords: Budget, Capital Expenditure, Cross River State, Internally Generated Revenue

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