Citation: Mohamed Aymen Ben Moussa, Adel Boubaker and Abdelmonem Naimi (2022) The Determinants of Bank Profitability: Case of Tunisia, International Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol.10, No.1, pp.44-56
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of selected internal and external factors on a bank’s profitability. The research investigates the impact of size; liquidity ; operating costs ; deposits ; credits ; GDP growth and inflation change of the profitability of sample of 11 banks in Tunisia for the period ( 2000…2018). The determinants were used to construct 2 models with ROA and ROE as a proxies and regression analysis using panel approach. It was found that size ; bank deposit ; operating costs ; liquidity ; economic growth have a significant impact on bank profitability measured by ( ROA and ROE).
This study examined the effect of financial risks on performance of Deposit Money Banks DMBs) using the identified explanatory variables of financial risks, viz: Credit risks, Insolvency risks, Liquidity risks and Market risks covering a period of 12 years (2007- 2018). The methodology of the study makes use of ex-post facto research design. While the population of the study were nineteen deposit money banks, the study sample comprised ten (10) DMBs. The panel regression models estimated using Unobserved Effects Model (UEM), while the result of the Hausman test indicated between fixed effect model and random effect model at 5% inference. The study findings showed that Credit Risk was negative and statistically significant to deposit money banks’ performance [β = – 13.0495; Pval = 0.013]. The result also shows that Liquidity Risk is inversely and insignificantly related to banks’ profitability [β = – 0.156; Pval = 0.6703] and Insolvency Risk (INSRK) have negative signs that are statistically insignificant to banks profitability [β = – 0.016; Pval = 0.745]. Market Risk has insignificant and positive effect on Profitability (NPBIT) [β = 0.038; Pval = 0.5720] at 0.05 level. Also, Credit Risk (CR) was found to be negative and statistically significant at Economic Value Added [β = – 7.0789; Pval = 0.006]. On the contrary, the result also shows that Liquidity Risk (LIQR) [β = 0.0264; Pval = 0.961] and Market Risk [β = 0.0369; Pval = 0.747] have positive signs that are statistically insignificant to Economic Value Added. On its part, Credit Risk (CR) established a negative and significant effect on Return on Assets [β = – 0.9647; Pval = 0.0421]. Liquidity Risk [β = – 0.0018; Pval = 0.8471] and Insolvency Risk [β = 0.0008; Pval = 0.7719] have negative and positive signs that are statistically insignificant to Return on Assets. In relation to the findings of the study, the study recommended amongst others that it is fundamental for DMBs in Nigeria to practice scientific credit risk management, improve their efficacy in credit analysis and loan management to secure as much as possible their assets, and minimize the high incidence of non-performing loans and their negative effects on financial performance
Relationship between Total Quality Management Practices and Profitability: Case of Small Hotel Sector London (UK) (Published)
The rise of competition has inclined various small-scale businesses to incorporate a robust strategy in order to increase profitability. Therefore, in the contemporary enterprise sector, exceptional importance has been given to the concept of Total Quality Management by both local and multinational organisations, considering the associated benefits of continuous improvement, increased efficiency, and the overall efficacy of the organisation. Thus, the main aim of this study is to assess the impact of TQM implementation into small scale hotels in terms of financial growth (profitability); and to develop a comprehensive and feasible quality framework for managers to adopt the best TQM practices that enhance profitability through quality improvement and to achieve expected results. The researcher has applied quantitative method by recruiting 141 participants (managerial level) to achieve the overall aim and objectives of this study, Therefore, survey questionnaires by using Likert scale has been conducted leading towards descriptive, correlation and chi-square analysis of the data collected. The results showed that various TQM practices have positive impact on the profitability of small hotels, such as continuous improvement, quality improvement, role of top management, training and education, employee empowerment and technological innovation, Finally, this research makes an original contribution in the academic and practical field as it enhances the knowledge of TQM among the managers and quality practitioners. Besides presenting some recommendations for small hotels, the study also puts some suggestions for future research in this area with limitations.
This study investigated the influence of corporate governance on profitability of quoted oil and gas companies in Nigeria. The ex post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study was made up of the twelve (12) oil and gas companies listed on the Nigerian stock exchange between 2010 and 2018. Ten (10) listed oil and gas companies in Nigeria constituted the sample size for this study. Data required for the study were extracted from the audited financial statements of the quoted oil and gas companies that constituted the sample of this study and analysis of data was carried out using descriptive statistics. Multiple regression and correlation statistics were used in testing the hypothesis postulated. The investigation revealed that a significant positive linear relationship exists between corporate governance and profitability of quoted oil and gas companies in Nigeria and that board independence, board size and board meetings accounts for 3.2 percent, 21.9 percent and 2.8 percent respectively of the profitability of quoted oil and gas companies in Nigeria. The results of the study further revealed that audit committee independence, audit committee meetings and audit committee competence accounts for 1.6 percent, 6.8 percent and 14.3 percent respectively of the profitability of quoted oil and gas companies while external auditor independence, shareholders’ involvement and ownership concentration accounts for 1.2 percent, 23.6 percent and 0.2 percent respectively of the profitability of quoted oil and gas companies in Nigeria. Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that corporate governance has a moderate influence (52.3 percent) on profitability of quoted oil and gas companies in Nigeria. One of the recommendations made was that quoted oil and gas companies in Nigeria should continually appraise their corporate governance system with a view to determine whether the system is functioning as expected so that corrective actions can be taken to address any deficiency in the system and such appraisal should be done annually.
Dynamic Analysis of Financial Statement Fraud on Profitability of Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria (Published)
The aim of this research study is to assess the impact of financial statement fraud on profitability of selected Nigerian manufacturing firms covering (2002-2016). The specific objectives focused on ascertaining the effect of variables of financial statement fraud on return on assets (ROA). To achieve these objective, descriptive research design was used for the study while secondary data was collected from the financial reports of the selected firms and website of Security and Exchange Commission. The Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used and STATA II econometric method was adopted in the analysis of the data. Beneish model was adopted in the analysis of the financial reports to create a dummy variable for the selected firms from 2002-2016 and validation of the parameters were ascertained using various statistical techniques such as t-test, co-efficient of determination (R2), F-statistics and Wald chi-square. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested using the t-statistics at 5% level of significance. The findings of the analysis revealed that there is a significant relationship between financial statement fraud and profitability in Nigerian manufacturing industry. It was found that increase in fictitious revenue in manufacturing industry would lead to low profitability. The implication of this is that increase in fictitious revenue would lead to decrease in performance. The study therefore recommended that pragmatic policy options need to be taken in the manufacturing industry to effectively manage fictitious revenue, in order to enhance manufacturing industry performance in the country and also financial statement fraud should be adequately inculcated into the internal control system of manufacturing firms for the effective running of the manufacturing industry in Nigeria.
This study aims to determine the factors that affect the profitability of commercial banks in Indonesia. This research is a quantitative research using a sample six largest banks with total assets under ICMD. The banks included in the sample in this study is that Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk., Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk., Bank Central Asia Tbk., Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk., Bank Danamon Indonesia Tbk., and Bank Pan Indonesia Tbk. The research data in the form of panel data obtained from the annual financial statements of the bank. Techniques using multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that the variables of liquidity of banks, non-performing loans and capital adequacy simultaneously affect the bank’s profitability. The partial effect of liquidity and non-performing loans significantly influence the profitability of banks. While the capital adequacy ratio of no significant impact on the profitability of commercial banks in Indonesia
Working Capital Management Antecedents Impact on Firm Specific Factors: A Ten Year Review of Karachi Stock Exchange (Published)
The study aims of investigate relationship of working capital antecedents and profitability of the company. Seven variables are taken as proxy variable to measure working capital and its management. Population of the study is based on Karachi stock exchange listed companies. The sample of study is manufacturing sector of Pakistan. Thus, sample period contains on the ten years from (2005-2014). All variables have sound reliability and data is normally distributed. Therefore, correlation and regression analyses are applied. Hence, study revealed significant relationship of working capital management and profitability.
This research focuses on Production Planning and Profitability. A study of Flour Mill of Nigeria Plc, Dangote Flour Mill Plc, and Honeywell Flour Mill Plc was adopted. Production Planning is important in providing better and more economic goods to customers at lower investment. Inventory shortage as a result of stock out and unexpected increase in demand, supply challenge associated with inadequate capacity installation of machines, poor technology, poor capacity utilization, inability to meet budgetary target as a result of change in demand and supply variable and poor demand forecasting are established as the problem of this study. In view of the problem identified, the objectives of this study are to examine the effect of inventory shortage on turnover, to examine the problems of value added by supply chain on profitability and to ascertain the influence of budget on investment of selected manufacturing firms in Nigeria. This work is anchored on the Economic Theory of Production and Rational Economic Man Theory. Data collected for this research were based on Secondary information. Data obtained were analyzed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique by the use of time series. The finding of this study shows that the estimated coefficient of the constant term is statistically significant at better than 0.1 per cent for Dangote Flour Mill Plc and Honeywell Flour Mill Plc and statistically significant at 0.6 per cent for Flour Mill of Nigeria Plc. This implies that increase in turnover (sales) lead to subsequent increase in inventory which in turn increases level of production. The increase in turnover subsequently increases profitability in Dangote Flour Mill Plc and Honeywell Flour Mill Plc. This study concludes that increase in turnover, profitability and budget are vital sources of facilitating growth in flour milling firms in Nigeria. The study recommends that flour millers should integrate their supply chain management operations efficiently to enhances their sales and profitability and also adopt the supply chain strategy/models that were developed in this study to align with their operations and target customers
Stimulants of Profitability of Non-Bank Financial Institutions: Evidence from Bangladesh (Published)
Financial institutions both Bank and Non-Bank play a significant role in the economy of a country. Like other developing countries Beside the Banking industry necessarily of Non-Bank financial institutions cannot overlook in Bangladesh. This study inspects the profitability of firms in the Non-Banking Financial Institutions (NBFIs) diligence of Bangladesh. Financial Enactment of a financial organization fundamentally depends on its some key financial factors. Specially operating efficiency is main inducing factor which is designed through operating income. Besides it capital Structure combination of equity and liability, term deposit, total asset considerably affect the profitability of any NBFI company. In addition operating expense also upsets the profitability though that is not statistically significant. Different Statistical procedures such as correlation matrix, multiple regressions have been used to determine the associations between variables. And before doing regression analysis normality distribution test has been accomplished by One-Sample Kolmogorov- Smirnov Test. This research is an effort to find out the statistically significant key stimulants variable and their level of impact over net profit.
Profitability in the Red Meat Industry on the Ghanaian Livestock Market: Evidence from a Publically-Owned Red Meat Facility (Published)
We examined the profitability of a publically owned enterprise in Kumasi-Ghana. Specifically, the study sought to; determine the costs and returns, associated with operations, assess the factors that affect the profitability, and identify the challenges faced by management in their operations. Non-probability purposive sampling was used to select the study area. Structured interviews were used as primary data whereas a 10-year financial statement was the secondary data source. The result showed a positive profitability index of 0.88 and operation ratio of 0.93 although the gross margin analysis produced an operating loss (π) of (GHȻ (37,331)) given a TAC of GHȻ 4,409,972, TVC of GHȻ 10,148,464, TR of GHȻ 14,059,680, and a GM of GHȻ 4,372,644. The regression model confirmed that factors that affect the profitability of abattoir enterprise are influenced by eight factors namely; Salaries/Wages, Electricity/Water, Plant repair/maintenance, plant/market consumables, cleaning detergents, pension contribution, depreciation expense and packaging/labelling at r=0.86.