The quest of every nation in the world upon attaining the status of a state is to attain sustainable national development aimed at improving the socio-economic well-being of its citizenry. National development is a multi-faceted transformation of every sector of a nation vis-a-vis economy, politics, religion, science and technology, and medicine among others. This will improve citizens’ standard of living, reduce the mortality rate and improve the life expectancy rate. This national development goal can only become a reality through the interplay between the various systems that make up a nation. One of the major systems within a nation that can determine its development is religion and politics. Religion and politics are inseparable in a religiously pluralistic society like Nigeria. Religious influence on politics is very glaring. Religious politics can be a catalyst for national development if its positive side can be explored. The aim of this paper is therefore to highlight the role that religious politics can play in national development. Descriptive and analytical research method has been adopted based on library and internet materials within the theoretical framework of Aristotle’s political theory of constitution which underscores the fact that everything government does must be for the good of the populace. This correlates with the religious ethical value of doing good to all. The paper finds out that religion and politics are inseparable and if positively explored can help in national development. It is recommended that religious ethical values should be the guiding principles in our political landscape which is essential for national development.
Ethnic-Based Political Parties: Challenges And Prospects For National Unity Of Ethiopia In The Post 1991 (Published)
The aim of the paper is to investigate the challenges and prospects of ethnic-based politics on national unity of Ethiopia. To address the objectives of the study, the researcher employed qualitative approach with case study as study design and used primary and secondary data sources. Primary data was collected from the key informant interview and FGDs. Secondary data was collected from different books, reports, journals, published and unpublished proclamations, conference papers, dissertations and FDRE constitution. In this study the researcher has been used purposive sampling and thematic analysis method based on the objectives of the study. With the view of ensuring unity with diversity the finding of the study has revealed that ethnic-based political parties have daunting challenges for national unity. In this regard, they are playing in the politicizing of ethnicities, ethnic autonomy conflicts and intra-regional boundary conflicts and self-determination and secessionists feeling were discussed on the challenges of national unity for the country. Despite the negative impacts there appeared to be helped role in the empowerment of minority groups and advocacy of culture of ethnic groups in Ethiopia. Consequently, to realization of national unity of Ethiopia, the possible tools have been investigated: the constitutional and electoral reform, the intra-regional boundary demarcation, empowerment of multinational and civic oriented political parties, national consensus and reconciliation. The researcher argues that ethnic politics can also be playing divisive factors which can seriously challenging the mutual existence of Ethiopia and make the quest for national unity difficult. Therefore, it recommends that the view that national unity can be achieved when ethnic politics becomes a tool for the accommodation of diverse political programs.
The contribution of women to the socio-economic and political development of any modern democratic state is essential and indispensable. This paper examines the extent of women participation in politics and national development in Nigeria. The study adopted secondary data as sources of information. The constraints of women participation inpolitics pose as hindrance to national developmentin Nigeria. It is discernible from this study that cultural, environmental, educational and gender factors are major barriers to active women participation inpolitics. It is part of the objectives of this work to realize active women participation in National political life for a sustainable National development.Government at all levels should embark on enlightenment campaign to sensitize the public on the need for more women to embrace and pursue education as this is a catalyst for active women participation inpolitics. It is also recommended that coercive legislations should be made at all levels against every form of discrimination against women.
Women’s participation in politics is a contentious issue in the Nigerian political life. Over the years marginalization has characterized women participation in politics due to various inhibiting social, cultural and religious forces. These forces affected women’s perception of politics leading to a very low level of political interest, knowledge and activities of women in politics. Nigeria politics became male – dominated almost making the women virtually politically invisible. However, various moves to inculcate skills and knowledge that will liberate women from abject poverty (socially, economically and politically) are on. These will go a long way to increase and improve women participation in politics in Nigeria. Women are believed to have an exciting political prospect in Nigeria. The issue of inequality has therefore been perceived by different people especially the women folk as an attempt to erode their fundamental rights. In short, Women Participation in Nigerian politics is a topic of importance. Politically, women have been relegated to the background, despite the tremendous effort put forward by government and non-governmental organizations following the declaration made at the fourth World Conference on women in Beijing, which advocated 30% affirmative action and National Gender Policy (NGP) recommendation of 35% affirmative action for a more inclusive representation of women both in elective and appointive positions. It is worthy to note as revealed by this paper, that Nigerian women are still being marginalized due to the style of leadership inherent in the country. Despite the challenges women are facing, it was discovered that women activism and advocacy, education of women, positivity on the part of successive governments towards women empowerment and interest of women to participate in politics is getting a lot of positive energy. It is therefore, an indication that the participation of women in politics has a bright future. But, this is not without that, relevant stakeholders are advised to advocate for the protection of women from abuse, empower them economically and politically and review the necessary legislations to accommodate the growing interest of women in politics both elective and appointive positions.
The Effects of Political Factors on Public Service Motivation: Evidence from the Lebanese Civil Service (Published)
The widespread infusion of pro-market and business management principles into the public sector has impeded the behaviour of civil servants who are motivated by intrinsic motives, not external ones. Besides, the infusion of such principles caused great threats to basic values of the civil service, like equity, fairness, justice, accountability, impartiality, political neutrality, public welfare and other values related to the public sector. From here, public service motivation (PSM) emanates as a reaction against these principles/techniques in the civil service. PSM has been studied in different developed countries; however, it was almost ignored in developing countries, especially Arab states. This study focuses on two significant under theorized areas: the conceptualization of PSM in the Lebanese civil service, and the identification of an external dimension (political factors) and its role in facilitating or obstructing the development of this construct.
With increasing pressure from the Breton woods and other international donor organizations for African states to move towards good governance, some of these countries including Cameroon are gradually attempting to institute reforms towards the attainment of these goals. Apart from instituting reforms that will grant free political participation, the government of Cameroon has also come up with the policy of regional balance that is intended to ensure a kind of equality in the distribution of what is commonly referred to as the National Cake. It is important to note that Cameroon is very diverse in terms of Ethnic nationalities and there is a gross disparity amongst these nationalities in terms of the natural distribution of resources. Some of the regions are naturally richer than others in terms of natural potentials and the government in her quest for good governance has come up with the theory of regional balance to guarantee fairness in the distribution of these resources. The paper is aimed at examining the perception of good governance in Cameroon and whether these perceptions actually match the practical implementation of this concept. The study equally looks at the instruments of good governance and the progress that has been attained since the introduction of the concept of good governance. The tenets of good governance, its features and the major obstacles to its application constitute the main trust of this research work. With regards to methodology, this study adopts a kind of inter-disciplinary design given that the study cuts across issues of geography, resource allocation and management, state policy and balanced development put in historical perspective. A qualitative instrument of analysis was adopted to give a critical insight to issues of governance in the society under study. In doing this a serious dichotomy is drawn between the perception of this policy and its practical application on ground.
Ethnics religious crises in Nigeria are deeply rooted and is threatening the very survival of the nation. It has negatively impacted on the socio-economic and bureaucratic landscape of Nigeria. To the degree that a lot of issues that should have been resolved are unnecessarily ethicised. It is persistent that the grievances, which normally provoke ethnic religious are most often than not demonstrated through sectarian crises, tribal unrests, bitter political complaints usually stoked by political elites, Incendiary media rhetoric reports and violent insurgents.The arguments in this study are reinforced through secondary source of data collection. Also, historical analysis of event is adopted due to the fact that Nigeria Society is better understood with reference to history.The story finds out that since the Colonial periods up till now, there have been ethnic and religious minorities that harbour grievance against the majorities. In view of the current events unfolding in the country the need has arisen for academic perusal on the issue in order to profer enduring panacea to checkmate the disintegration that may be invoked by ethnic-religiou palaver.
Public Administration and the Collapse of Probity And Good Governance in Nigeria: The Impact Of Political Superstructure. (Published)
Emerging from the vestiges of over one hundred years of imperial rule, the Nigerian public administration system has experienced significant transformation to secure a place of pride in the general discourse on governance. However, the stream of political developments that brought the system into sharp focus and relevance has been as challenging to the public service as they are instructive in intellectual reflections. For example, in the growing literature on the collapse of probity and good governance in Nigeria, the public service has been severely scored on account of its failure to provide the required institutional grounding for good governance. While not absorbing the political class of culpability for this failure, the general assessment of the leadership question in Nigeria has been heavily skewed against the bureaucracy. The paper seeks to deconstruct this notion and argues that the political superstructure is largely responsible for the governance failure, and that the public service under the suffocating grip of its political master has only managed to maintain its going concern within the context of political instability, policy inconsistency, and the lack of political accountability in the last fifty years of public administration. The analysis is predicated on the politics – administration dichotomy as its theoretical framework. This approach provides tremendous insight into the nature and character of interaction between the political class and the administrative class on the basis of which deductions are made and conclusion drawn. In the final analysis, two recommendations stand out among others; a call for legislative activism sufficient enough to institutionalise a culture of political and managerial accountability and a call for policy consistency sufficient enough to sustain and drive the current reforms of the public service to its logical ends