The Concept and Models of Representation (Published)
The model of representation is a theoretical framework that delineates the manner in which elected officials or political representatives are anticipated to advocate for the interests, desires, and necessities of their constituents. This study elucidates various models of representation, each presenting distinct viewpoints on the functioning of this representation. Several prominent models of representation in politics include the trustee, delegate, partisan, and political representatives. The findings indicate that there are several elements that pose challenges to the functioning of representative government. These problems include defection, corruption, and the absence of clear ideological frameworks within political parties. The study concludes by offering recommendations for increasing representative governance through practical means, including the participation of all individuals, the promotion of political equality, and the cultivation of a sense of political responsibility.
Power and ideology, which are two main concerns in critical discourse analysis (CDA) approach, have become medium for each other to innervate and sustain each other in the society. Both of them can be manifested via the use of some linguistic expressions and forms. Halliday’s Systematic functional linguistic (SFL), can be applied in the sake of investigating those linguistic forms in harmony with CDA. The current article investigates the use of deixis to represent power relations and ideologies in two messages of Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi (leader of ISIS). The analysis involves CDA based on the works of van Dijk (2000 & 2008) and Fairclough (1989, 1995& 2003) in addition to Halliday’s SFL (1985 & 1994). The conclusions manifested different power relations in Al-Baghdadi messages (Allah Almighty and Al-Baghdadi, Al-Baghdadi and Non-Muslims, and Al-Baghdadi and the Muslims). Further, ideologies of principle belief, the believers’ duty and political ideologies are all identified through the use of personal deixis such the pronoun ‘I’ and the pronoun ‘we’ refer to Al-Baghdadi (the speaker) and to ISIS (his group) respectively, the pronoun ‘Him’ and the pronoun ‘He’ represent Allah Almighty. In this context, the pronoun ‘we’ has no power over anyone, while the pronoun ‘Him’ is the powerful one.
The present paper attempts to analyse the main front-page headlines of eight Egyptian newspapers, with different mainstream readerships, reporting a single political news issue. On the 13th of April 2013, the retrial of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was postponed when the judge withdrew from the case and referred it to another court. The next day, all Egyptian newspapers tackled the event. A critical discourse analysis is carried out to investigate the way language is used to shape certain political ideologies in the newspapers’ headlines. The study concludes that despite their claim of being objective, newspapers represent news in a way that propagates their preferred ideologies. Hence, other than being a means of communication, newspapers seem to be an instrument of power, control and manipulation.
This paper observes that most discourses in a multilingual setting tend to be ideologically based. Using the multi-ethnic Nigerian situation as reference point, the study explores the ideological nature of reportage in selected newspaper headlines with a view to examining how the structures of media discourse are influenced by the structures of ideologies. The Triangulated Discourse Analytical Approach of Teun Van Dijk was adapted as the theoretical framework for the study. Twenty headlines, characterized by social properties of ideologies such as activity, perspective, rhetorical form, goal, resource and so on are purposively selected from five different Nigerian newspapers, formed the data which were content-analyzed. The surface structure of the newspaper headlines contained ideologies and belief system of the writers which were not overtly expressed but located in the linguistic expressions that characterized the selected newspaper headlines. The nature of language in the newspaper headlines indicate that the writers conceal their opinions in linguistic forms in order to create persuasion for ideological support.