European Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance Research (EJAAFR)

EA Journals


Business Consolidation and Its Impact on Financial Performance: Evidence from the Ghanaian Banking Industry (Published)

The study provides empirical examination on the impact of business consolidation or mergers and acquisitions (M&A) on the financial performance of banks in Ghana. Both descriptive and correlational research designs were employed for the study. Two banks: Ecobank Ghana Ltd and Access Bank Ghana Ltd were chosen for the study. The annual reports of the banks from pre-merger period (2009 to 2011) and post-merger period (2012 to 2015) were used for the analysis. Two analysis techniques: ratio and regression analysis were used to examine the impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) on the profitability of these firms. Net profit margin (NPM) and return on capital employed (ROCE) were used as proxies for financial performance and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression model was used to estimate the level of impact of M&A on the performance of the banks. The study revealed that mergers and acquisitions (M&A) resulted to more than 80% growth in income and the net assets immediately after acquisition. The growth in profitability continued in subsequent years, however at a decreasing rates. With regards to net profit margin and return on capital employed (ROCE), the banks observed a marginal decline after three years of acquisition. The study further found empirical evidence to support the view that mergers and acquisitions (M&A) has a positive and significant impact on both NPM and ROCE. Accordingly, it is concluded that mergers and acquisitions (M&A) has a positive and significant impact on financial performance of banks.

Keywords: Acquisition, Agency Theory, Banks’, Consolidation, Mergers, Net Profit Margin, Return on Capital Employed (ROCE), synergy

Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on the Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (Published)

Business combination through mergers and acquisitions has become a global phenomenon to achieve economies of scale and higher productivity. The need for financial institutions to merge becomes even more imperative in the face of the onslaught of greater competition arising from globalization. This study evaluated the impact of mergers and acquisitions which started in 2005 on the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria using a sample of ten (10) banks. This research made use of secondary data, obtained from the bank’s annual reports and statements of accounts covering a period of 2001-2010, Using nine (9) variables; Return on Assets, Return on Equity, Net Profit Margin, Asset Utilisation, Equity Multiplier, Earnings per share, Debt Equity ratio, Debt Asset ratio & Leverage ratio, the study evaluated the performance of the banks before and after mergers and acquisitions using pair sample t-test. The results showed that there is significant difference in the performances of Deposit Money Banks in the pre and post-merger periods using the ROA, ROE and LR as yards tick but shows no significant impacts in the performances of Deposit Money Bank using other variables as yard stick. The study hereby recommends that the CBN should set and enforce corporate governance standards for commercial banks and also enforce risk based supervision in banks.

Keywords: Acquisition, Mergers, Performance Ratios


The research of this study is to define the objectivity of merger and acquisition impact in pre and post scenario of the event. The study has played with two parts, the first part of the study implement regression model with the help of accounting ratios of profitability and long term financial position ratios with score of bankruptcy. The second part of the study just analyzes the pre and post financial ratios and its trend over the period of time. The time period taken for the selected company PTCL is from 2003 to 2009, which covers the event. The results of first part of the study has shown that profitability and long term financial position of the company is producing a strong positive impact on the firm score of bankruptcy. The second part of financial ratio has seen that after acquisition the profitability of has declined significantly and it has affected the score of the bankruptcy i.e. Z-Score. The overall long term financial position is neither improved nor declined. It has shown a constant trend over the period of time in which the data is taken. It has been conclude that performance of PTCL has not improved over the period of time

Keywords: Acquisition, Bankruptcy, Long Term Financial Position, Merger, PTCL, Profitability, Regression, Z Score


Mergers and Acquisition has been described as a viable too for capital increase in businesses. The Nigerian business environment is not distant from this opinion as several mergers have been successfully conducted to date. Specifically, the banking scene had witnessed many prior to the last recapitalization exercise. This paper investigates the relationship between increasing share capital of banks through merger and acquisition and liquidity and profitability. The study conducts empirical investigation into the merger of Intercontinental Merchant Bank Limited and Equity Bank Limited. The analysis is divided into pre and post merger periods to specifically capture the impacts created by the action. The study observes that liquidity is not significant in the relationship while profitability is very good in explaining the relationship. The paper concludes that profitability of banks is enhanced with capital increase, though not necessarily the liquidity level.

Keywords: Acquisition, Bank Health, Mergers

Post Merger And Acquisition And Performance Of Deposit Money Banks In Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)

Mergers and acquisitions as a phenomenon is implemented to strengthen the banking system, embrace globalization, improve healthy competition, exploit economies of scale, adopt advanced technologies, raise efficiency and improve profitability. The world globalization has led to world financial crisis which has significantly affected the banking industry and has consequently increased the need for mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the consolidation of deposit money banks. One of the major policies introduced to solve these financial problems is by consolidation through mergers and acquisitions. This study explored the impact of post mergers and acquisitions on the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study adopted a cross sectional survey design with a total population of 22 deposit money banks in Nigeria. A sample of 10 banks was randomly selected from the above population. The study used the secondary sources to extract data from the Annual Reports of the selected banks for a period of five (5) years (2008-2012). Simple regression analysis technique was used for data analyses. The study revealed that as at the end of year 2012, the average capital base of the sampled banks in the post Merger period showed a total of (N 1.76 Trillion). This is an improvement from the recent work of Oghojafor (2012) in which average capital base stood at (N 6,358.76 Million). The study revealed an insignificant but positive relationship between post mergers and acquisitions capital base (PMACB) and dividend per share (DPS) with (P=0.985 i.e. P>0.05), earnings per share (EPS) with (P=0.803 i.e. P>0.05), return on assets (ROA) with (P=0.859 i.e. P>0.05) and return on capital employed with (P=0.666 i.e. P>0.05). This study concluded that post merger and acquisition has no significant effect on dividend per share of shareholders, their earnings per share, return on assets and return on capital employed. In a broad perspective, this study further revealed that there is a reduction in the degree of global banking crisis over the years and thus reduction in the general banking failure particularly in Nigeria. This is made possible through mergers and acquisition process which consecutively resulted in increased capital base of banking industry in Nigeria. The study recommended that equal considerations should be given to both micro and macro prudential guidelines, in order to ensure sound and stable banking system. Also, deposit money banks should incorporate into their banking policy other factors such as credit discipline, corporate culture, and management information system so as to ensure increase in their earnings ability.

Keywords: Acquisition, Banking Sector, Merger, Performance

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