Unlike captive aquifers that are relatively protected by their impermeable roof, the Berrechid water table is very vulnerable to pollution from the ground surface. This pollution can be either localized (discharges of domestic and industrial wastewater, solid wastes leached by seepage water, either diffuse (Fertilizer application of soils, treatment of crops with plant protection products). This last mode of contamination presents the danger of being spread over large areas, and therefore of being difficult to control.To model the nitrate transport in the Berrechid aquifer, we used the MT3DMS model coupled with the hydrodynamic model previously created using MODFLOW; this in order to have a decision support tool for optimal management of the region’s groundwater resources.Various simplified water management scenarios are examined, in particular artificial recharge and reduction of pumped water volumes for irrigation. The results show that the halving of current withdrawals would improve the current situation of the Berrechid aquifer by avoiding the appearance of dewatering zones in 2025, with a considerable drop in nitrate concentrations in almost the entire aquifer. This model that we developed could thus be a useful tool for the management and protection of groundwater in the Berrechid aquifer.
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the natural environment and humans. Food packaging is an essential medium for preserving the food quality and minimising food wastage. When packaging waste is not properly handled or disposed, they have adverse or harmful effect on human health and also constitute environment, social and economic hazard. The study focused on the strategies for environmental protection against food packaging waste in Enugu state. Specifically, the study was designed to find out how recycling, reusing of food packaging wastes. A survey design was used for the study and questionnaire was used for data collection. The population of the study was 300 workers of Enugu State Waste Management Authority (ESWAMA). The data collected were analysed using mean and frequency, hypothesis was tested using chi square at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study showed that; recycling, reusing of food packaging wastes help in the environmental protection in Enugu state. It was recommended that; entrepreneurship should be encouraged in the area of recycling and reusing of food packaging wastes. It was also recommended that Enugu state government should encourage companies to design their product for re-use, recyclability and material reduction and those individuals should be encouraged to be environmental friendly.