International Journal of International Relations, Media and Mass Communication Studies (IJIRMMCS)

EA Journals


Pandemics and Beyond Legal Implications for Combatting Alternative Forms of Terrorism and Bioterrorism (Published)

Preventing terrorism and bioterrorism is a top priority nowadays, both globally and locally. This article examines the phenomenon of terrorism and bioterrorism within a legal and ethical reflection within the framework of law and national security. This paper aims to present a comparative analysis of the threat of terrorism and bioterrorism in Albania as a country in the European Union’s neighboring process. The comparative method will examine the juridical framework and criminal sanctions in Albania compared to international law. The study examines terrorism and bioterrorism, including their prosecution, legal measures, and major issues on a global, regional, and national level. The results of the comparative study will be discussed in the form of a legal analysis. By studying the phenomenon, behaviors, worldwide regulation, practices, and judicial predictions, I have come to a few conclusions concerning the suitability of our regulation with the supranational one, specifically with that of the European Union to enhance country-wide protection and improvements in the Rule of Law.

Keywords: Provisions, Rule Of Law, Terrorism, bioterrorism, legal measures

Terrorism and Businesses in North East: Implications for Economic Growth in Nigeria (Published)

Since the beginning and escalation of terrorism, various sectors of the economy have been affected as a result of the negative peace and fatalities associated with the Boko Haram terrorism. The situation has caused rapid inflation and decline in the availability of basic human needs. Containing the threat and related displacements has been challenging to the state security providers, who are also affected by the Boko Haram activities. This study examines the implications of terrorism for business activities in North-eastern Nigeria.  Apart from direct attack on businesses, the activities of terrorists are inimical to economic growth. Consequently, most displaced people have continued to suffer malnutrition. This paper argues that timely containment of the terror is the only way to save the economy from total collapse. This requires the joint military task force to stop the terrorists from snatching vehicles loaded with foodstuffs on the highway, burning of villages and mounting of road blocks.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Businesses., Terrorism, northeast

Victims understanding of government through actions and communication: The case of Garissa University College terror attack (Published)

This study falls within the government communication field. In the study, we aim at exploring what citizens make of government from its actions and communication. The study was contextualized in the government actions and communication during the 2015 Garissa University College terror attack. Terrorism is violent communication aimed at discrediting the position that governments protect citizens’ lives and property. How government deals with the attackers and how it communicates to citizens who eagerly await government communication reveals something about the nature of government. Although government communicates to the citizens, studies have been silent on citizen feedback based on the messages and actions of the government. This study adopted a qualitative approach and took a hermeneutic phenomenological design where terror victims’ lived experiences were interrogated to elucidate some perceptions towards government and government communication. Three methods were used to generate data, namely: interviews, observation and document analysis. The study findings revealed that terror victims interacted with government — an interaction that revealed a government that send mixed signals on its capacity to handle the situation.

Keywords: Terrorism, government communication, nature of communication

Politics and Terrorism: Case Study of Pakistan (Published)

Pakistan is facing a wave of terrorism and political actors and its policy makers are trying to find solutions to effectively execute counter terrorism strategies and bought peace back in Pakistan.  Pakistani politics lacks consistency where its political culture is weak and political systems keeps on changing that effects the working and performance of formal politics and government. This research study intends to find a relationship of formal politics on the terrorism in Pakistan. The case study for the research study is Pakistan but it is reviewed in both Pakistan’s terrorism history and global patterns of terrorism. It also considers the politics of Pakistan through history and patterns of formal politics that includes political culture and political systems in Pakistan. One of the major research objective was to elaborate on the causes and effects of the relationship between politics and terrorism in Pakistan. World have seen four major waves of terrorism, where Pakistan was affected maximum by forth wave of terrorism also known as religious wave of terrorism that came in 1980s. Pakistan have seen two major political systems i.e. dictatorship and democracy, where in authoritarian regimes political culture diminished and decisions and policies were made without political involvement from elected members. Democratic regimes promote political activism and inclusive culture, which in turn enable government to understand needs of people and execute policies in better manner. Evolving democracy have flourished national and grass root level politics due to which they have taken comprehensive measures to eliminate terrorism in collaboration with military establishment like military courts and counter terrorism operations. Qualitative research, analysis and systematic data analysis shows that Formal politics, active political culture and democratic system can play positive role in elimination terrorism to spread and eliminating it from Pakistan. The result outcomes of this study will benefit all the researchers whose aim is to pursue their research on the relationship of politics and terrorism. It provides policy recommendations for different stakeholders so that they can perform better policy making.

Keywords: Case Study, Pakistan, Politics, Terrorism

Countering Modern Terrorism: Military and Other Options (Published)

Terrorism has been part of human development dating back to the era of the struggles for independence and liberation but still defy attempts at an accepted definition. Hence, it has become increasingly necessary for governments to tackle this menace by whichever counter-terrorism measures possible. However, one pivotal means is the use of military force introduced by the then President of the United States, George W. Bush through his “War on Terror” speech on September 20, 2001. This paper tries to assess the pros and cons of this measure and other counterterrorism strategies.

Keywords: Counterterrorism, Military, New terrorism, Strategy, Terrorism, ‘War on Terror’

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