International Journal of Education, Learning and Development (IJELD)

EA Journals


Assessing the Implementation of University Management Strategies for Combating Examination Misconduct in Tanzanian Universities (Published)

This study assessed the implementation of university management strategies for combating examination misconduct in Tanzanian universities.  It was guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour developed by Ajzen in 1991. The study employed a convergent research design under mixed methods research approach. The target population was 27 universities, 51,489 students, 708 lecturers, 27 Chief examination officers and 27 Directors of quality assurance from which the sample size of 460 was selected through probability and non-probability sampling procedures. A questionnaire, document analysis guide and interview guide were used to collect data. Source triangulation and research experts ensured validity. Reliability was ensured through Cronbach alpha and intercoder agreement techniques. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics whereas qualitative data was analysed through thematic analysis. The study found that strategies such as penalties for examination offenders and checking for student’ illegal material were moderately implemented and there was a significant relationship between the levels of implementation of university management strategies for combating examination misconduct and the occurrence of various forms of examination misconduct in Tanzanian universities. The study concluded that university management strategies are not effectively implemented and there is a significant relationship between the levels of implementation of university management strategies and the occurrence of various forms of examination misconduct. The study recommends that universities in Tanzania in collaboration with Tanzania Commission for Universities should review and/or formulate academic integrity policies that will specify and uphold universities’ ethical principles and values as well as practices of appropriate examination conduct for handling policy violations to realize quality examinations

Keywords: Implementation, Tanzanian universities., combating, examination misconduct, management strategies

Evaluation of the Implementation of the Senior Secondary School Physics Curriculum in Nigeria (Published)

The study evaluated the Implementation of the Senior Secondary School Physics Curriculum in Nigeria. The purpose was to determine whether physics curriculum was implemented the way it should be or not. The study adopted the descriptive research design of the survey type. The population comprised all public senior secondary 3 physics teachers and students in Nigeria. The sample consisted of 60 teachers and 600 students selected through the multistage sampling procedure from six states selected from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Four research questions were raised for the study and the data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentages, means and standard deviations. The results revealed that the contents of the curriculum were not fully implemented, the schools had qualified physics teachers, the teachers were moderately experienced and that classes had large population of students. It was recommended that the school authorities should implore physics teachers to work harder and more experienced teachers recruited.

Keywords: Curriculum, Evaluation, Implementation, instructional and infrastructural facilities

Implementation of School Mapping and Micro Planning in The Supply of Teachers and Their Professional Development to Meet Demand in Public Primary Schools in Arusha Region, Tanzania (Published)

This seminar paper is guided by convergent design under a mixed-method approach to explore the implementation of school mapping and micro planning in the supply of teachers and professional development to meet demand in public primary schools in Arusha region, Tanzania. The study was guided by Open systems theory as postulated by Katz and Khan (1966). The target populations were 395,003. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were used while questionnaire, observation, Document schedule were used to gather quantitative information from pupils, teachers, Ward Education Officer, school Committee Members and interviews were used to collect Qualitative data from District Education Officer, District planning officer and District Executive Director. Quantitative Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and qualitative by coding and creating themes and final data was merged to ensure comparison of the findings. The reliability of the instruments was tested by using the Cronbach Alpha; while conformability of qualitative data was ensured by adherence to data collection procedures and ethics. The study found shortage of teachers supply and undeveloped teachers in primary schools. From that school mapping and micro-planning were not active to ensure the supply of teachers and professional development to meet the demand in public primary schools in Arusha region. The study recommended that the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoEST) Collaborate with the President Office Regional Administrative and Local government (PO-RALG) through Departments of planning should maintain school mapping and micro-planning through training and implement at district level for teachers supply and professional development to meet the demand in public primary schools. Local government and education stakeholders should mobilize and allocate reallocation funds for teachers’ recruitment at their locality and support teachers professional development in primary schools.

Citation: Gerald Anthony Maige and   Catherine Mueni Muteti (2022) Implementation of School Mapping and Micro Planning in The Supply of Teachers and Their Professional Development to Meet Demand in Public Primary Schools in Arusha Region, Tanzania, International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, Vol. 10, No.9, pp.66-85

Keywords: Implementation, micro planning, school mapping, teachers supply and professional development.

Interventions to Enhance Effective Use of Innovative Instructional Methods in Public Health Programmes Implementation in Kenya (Published)

Innovative instructional methods comprise a combination of approaches to teaching and learning that embrace modern technologies and are adaptable to different contexts. Since 1998, the College of Health Sciences of Moi University has embraced these innovative instructional methods to respond to 21st century challenges and trends in health professions’ training and education. Nevertheless, to date, students and lecturers’ experiences on the effectiveness of these methods have not been investigated. Therefore, the study sought the views of students and lecturers on the possible interventions in implementation of innovative instructional methods in Public Health Programme of Moi University. Mixed methods approach was used in this study involving the use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies. This was aimed at providing a comprehensive analysis of the research problem. The quantitative strategy (cross-sectional survey research) was used to gather numeric descriptions of level of knowledge of innovative instructional methods among a sample of lecturers. The qualitative strategy (phenomenological research) was used to identify students and lecturers’ experiences about determinants of use of innovative instructional methods. Pre-tested structured and unstructured sets of questionnaire were administered to students and lecturers of the school of Public Health. Structured interview was conducted among a sample of members of the management team including the Dean School of Public Health and Heads of Various Departments. An observational checklist was used to assess the adequacy of infrastructure and availability of instructional materials. From the study results, all the students and lecturers believe that there are interventions that need to be put in place to improve the use of innovative instructional methods in the implementation of the Public Health Programmes. Therefore, various interventions need to be put in place as suggested by the students and lecturers. These include training workshops to enhance capacity building for the staff and students and a closer follow-up on the implementation of innovative instructional methods. The main reason as to why the interventions were necessary was to help address shortcomings faced in using innovative instructional methods. From the study, it was emphasized that the interventions should be implemented as part of university policy on teaching and learning. It was thus recommended that the government, through the Ministry of Education, should supply schools with adequate resource materials to enable teachers and learners to play their roles satisfactorily in the curriculum implementation process. The study of interventions needed to enhance implementation, specially from the perspectives of the students and lecturers, was essential to understand the true picture of what needs to be done to improve the health education programme outcomes.

Keywords: Implementation, Kenya, Use, innovative instructional methods, interventions, public health programmes

Teachers’ Competency towards the Implementation of School Based Assessment in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria (Published)

The role of School Based Assessment (SBA) emphasized the teacher as a facilitator and an assessor. The assessment strategies involved in SBA requires a lot of responsibilities on the side of the teacher. Therefore, the research is aimed to assess teachers’ competency towards the implementation of school based assessment in secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria with the objective to determine the level of teachers’ competency towards the implementation of school based assessment and ascertain if difference exist with respect to the teachers sex, qualification and experience. In order to achieve this, one research question was raised and three hypotheses were formulated and tested in the course of the study. The study adopted the survey research design. All teachers in the 303 public secondary schools in the eighteen local government areas of the state formed the population. The simple random sampling technique was used to select 687 teachers from 61 public schools across the eighteen local government areas of the state for the study. The questionnaire titled “Teachers Competency toward the implementation of School- Based Assessment Questionnaire (TCSBQ). The instrument was validated and yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.84 using the Cronbach Alpha method. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research question and independent t- test statistics to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that the teachers are competent towards the implementing SBA. Also the results revealed no significant difference between male and female teachers while differences exist among the teachers with respect to teaching qualification and experience. It was recommended that government should provide more platform for professional development programmes and frequent training workshops and seminars that will continuously sensitize and enhance teachers in the SBA practices.

Keywords: Assessment, Implementation, School-based assessment, competency

Implementation of Civic Education Curriculum and Patriotism among Public Primary School Pupils in Ahoada Senatorial Zone, Rivers State (Published)

This study examined the influence of implementation of Civic Education curriculum on patriotism among public primary school pupils in Ahoada Senatorial Zone, Rivers State. Two hypotheses were formulated to direct the study and literature reviewed was based on the variable under study. Ex-post-facto research design was adopted for the study. A total sample of 500 pupils was selected using simple random and stratified sampling procedure. The questionnaire was the main instruments used for data collection. The instrument was face-validated by two experts in measurement and evaluation from the University of Calabar.  Correction were pointed out by the expert and adjusted by the researchers and the document was considered valid. The reliability estimate of the instrument was established through Cronbach Alpha reliability estimate which gave .76 and .78. These estimates were considered adequate and were used for the study. Independent t-test statistical technique was adopted to test the hypothesis at .05 level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed that, effective implementation of Civic Education Curriculum, Availability of teaching and learning materials in Civic Education significantly influence patriotism among public primary school pupils in  Ahoada-Senatorial Zone of Rivers State. Based on this finding, it was recommended among others that, the government should promote Civil Education by ensuring effective implementation and provision of teaching and learning in primary schools.


Keywords: Civic Education, Curriculum, Implementation, Patriotism, senatorial zone

Teacher Preparedness for Implementation of E–Learning Programmes in Public Primary Schools in Kenya (Published)

The use of ICT in many countries has contributed to improvement of their economies through scientific knowledge and services. In Kenya the policy makers initiated Vision 2030 as a vehicle for industrial advancement and growth of economy. The purpose of this study was to assess teacher preparedness for the implementation of e – learning programmes in Emuhaya Sub-county in Kenya. Objectives that guided this study include: To establish teachers preparedness in terms of knowledge, attitudes and skills for implementation of e – learning in public primary school and to identify challenges which implementers of e – learning are likely to face in public primary schools in Emuhaya Sub-county. The target population of the study was 664 class teachers from 83 public primary schools, each school providing eight teachers. Simple random sampling method was used to select 25 public primary schools from 83 schools in the sub-county. The sample size comprised 200 class teachers as respondents selected from middle and upper primary. Questionnaires were administered to class teachers and their responses presented in frequencies and percentages for the purpose of data analysis. The findings of the study revealed that teachers are not well prepared to implement e-learning programme therefore a lot of resistance to the programme. Teachers require sufficient time to prepare for integration into the new system of instruction. To address the problem teachers need encouragement through pre-service and in-service training. The respondents encounters challenges such as computer illiteracy and phobia, lack of computers and e – learning classrooms, lack of electricity, financing of e – learning programmes, sensitization of stakeholders, accessibility and time for training, old age and attitude. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education should introduce clusters of e – learning centres with instructors to man a group of schools. These centres can be used for training teachers from nearby schools. It is easier and cheap in terms of transport costs and also it is convenient. The private sector which plays a significant role in the development and growth of economy should be encouraged to support the initiative by donating funds to equip schools with computers.

Keywords: E-learning, Implementation, Preparedness

Comparative Assessment of the Implementation of the Early Childhood Education Curriculum in Public and Private Schools in Rural Areas of Ogun State Nigeria (Published)

Early years are remarkable period of growth and development in the lives of children. Early Childhood Education (ECE) is therefore an important educational activity geared towards giving early positive experiences to children. In achieving this, Curriculum of Early Childhood Education becomes a key factor. It is however worrisome that the implementation of this curriculum in Nigerian pre-primary school is too low despite its importance. This study was therefore conducted to compare ECE curriculum implementation in private and public schools in the rural areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 240 educational instructors as the sample size for this study. Data were collected with the aid of questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, and t-test.  Result of the study showed that majority (66.6%) of the respondents was between 21 – 40 years and the mean age was 36.6 years. Most (91.2%) of the respondents were female, married (78.8%), and had National Certificate in Education (48.8%) and Bachelor of Education (16.7%). The mean year of teaching experience was 12.4years. Most schools in the study area has teacher-pupil ratio of 1:35. Old curriculum was available (94.2%) and always used (78.8%) for teaching. Also, English Language (79.6%) constituted major means of communication and teaching of the children. Results of chi-square showed that significant association existed between ECE availability and ECE curriculum implementation in public and private schools (χ2 = 13.86, df = 3, p = 0.03) at p < 0.05 level. t-test analysis revealed that significant difference existed in the ECE curriculum implementation in private and public primary schools (t = 15.2, p = 0.00). The study established that implementation of ECE curriculum was generally low as most schools especially public primary schools lack basic school facilities and instructional materials and had no current edition of ECE curriculum. The study recommends that instructional materials should be adequately provided by the government, school management, individual proprietors and other stakeholders in the education sector, and Ministry of Education should ensure that new curriculum is in circulation and encourage its utilization for teaching in the study area.

Keywords: Curriculum, Early Childhood Education, Implementation, Private Schools, public

Implementation of ICT in Kenya Primary Schools in the Light of Free Laptops at Primary One, Challenges and Possibilities (A Case Study of Teachers in Nandi County Kenya Implementing ICT into their Teaching Practice (Published)

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been touted as being potentially powerful tools that can be used to facilitate the implied educational change and reform. Implementation of ICT in primary school learning environments is a complex task for both Teachers and learners, but also management and administration. To facilitate the change processes better the first step is to actually understand what problems and challenges realization of ICT leads to and how it affects practice. Although classical instructional methods will continue to be used in the teaching-learning process, it is also true that Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) can be harnessed to become powerful pedagogical tools. Proceeding from the premise that there are many ways to use new technologies for teaching and learning, the paper presents literature on the possibilities and challenges of integrating ICT into teaching-learning, the rationale for adopting and using ICTs for learning-teaching, as well as the key factors that influence the adoption and use of ICTs in teaching and learning both from a general perspective and in a technical education context.  The paper then outlines and discusses findings of a study designed to investigate the possibilities and challenges of using Information Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching-learning procedures in primary school institutions in Kenya using data obtained from a Tinderet District  school in the Rift valley region of Kenya. It examines views in pertinent literature as well as teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of integrating ICT into teaching-learning, the success factors and obstacles encountered in their endeavours to do this.  Conclusions are drawn and suggestions made to address the challenges and improve on the use of ICT for teaching-learning in teaching institutions.

Keywords: Challenges, ICTs, Implementation, Possibilities, Teaching-Learning

Life Skills Education Curriculum Implementation: Appropriateness of Teaching Methodologies Used By Secondary School Teachers in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)

Life Skills Education was introduced into school curriculum in 2009 by the Kenya Institute of Education. The examined the role of teachers’ pedagogical competences in the implementation of Life Skills Education in public primary schools in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Based on the study this paper explores the appropriateness of the teaching methodologies used by the teachers in implementation of life skills curriculum. The study was guided by Overcoming Resistance to Change (ORS) theory. It employed the descriptive survey research design using stratified sampling and purposive technique to recruit participants. To this end, stratified sampling technique was used to select 80 head teachers and 290 teacher representatives. On the other hand, purposive sampling technique was used to select one County Education Officer and 5 QUASO Officers. The research further used questionnaires and interviews to collect data. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the quantitative data while qualitative data was analysed by arranging the responses thematically in line with the objectives of the study. The study established that inadequate homework and exercises given to learners, lack of adequate presentations for evaluations and lack of end-term examinations had hindered the implementation of life skills education curriculum in public primary schools. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers need to adopt appropriate teaching methodologies in their implementation of life skills education. Appropriate methodologies are those that focus on achieving the best learning outcomes among students. Since life skills education is a relatively new subject area, school administrators in collaboration with the Ministry of Education and other government agencies should provide specialized in-service training to help teachers master the best methods for effectively teaching life skills education.

Keywords: Appropriateness, Implementation, Life Skills Education Curriculum, Teaching Methodologies

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