International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research (IJEER)

EA Journals


Bioethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: Technical Overview, Progress and Challenges (Published)

Due to the rapid growth in population and industrialization coupled with the adverse side effects from usage of fossil fuels, there is a high demand for renewable fuel especially ethanol which is environmentally friendly and can be used as substitute for premium motor spirit. Conventional crops such as corn and sugarcane are unable to meet the global demand of bioethanol production due to their primary value of food and feed. Therefore sugar, starch and lignocellulosic materials from municipal solid waste stream are attractive feedstocks for bioethanol production. Agricultural wastes from municipal solid waste stream are cost effective, sustainable, addresses environmental pollution and create wealth and energy. Bioethanol production from wastes could be promising, however, the processes has several challenges and limitations such as feedstock sourcing and finance. This paper gives an overview, the technicality, challenges and the progress for bioethanol production from municipal solid waste.

Citation: Biose Osadebe, Maureen Imhontu, Oghosa Akenzua, Christopher Okorie, James Onabe, Bildad Atsegha, Jonah D. Angalapu, Bawo Kubeyinje, Rita Orerome, Wale Akingba,2Igbinoimwahia D. Iyeke (2021) Bioethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: Technical Overview, Progress and Challenges, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research, Vol.9, No.3, pp., 1-9

Keywords: Energy, Environment, bioethanol, feedstock, municipal solid waste

An Overview of Energy Crisis and the Renewable Alternatives: The Nigerian Experience (Published)

Among the mirages of challenges confronting the global community today, that of energy is very prominent.  Sometimes, it is the crisis, politics, shocks, uncertainties, tendency for depletion, inadequacy in supply, high cost and non-availability to larger percentages of the people and so compounding the poverty level.  Nigeria is not exempted from all these worries like many other nations of the world.  However, the mark difference in some of these other nations is diversification and development from the non-renewable fossil fuel or hydrocarbon to the renewable alternatives which are eco-friendly, abundant, replenishables, readily available and likely more cost effective and affordable if promoted.  Nigeria is greatly endowed in renewable energy alternatives but with little or an insignificant attention.  In this paper therefore, an attempt was made in explorative research method to have a position paper on Nigeria’s oil industry, the politics and the need to promote the renewable alternatives.  Some research questions dealt with were; what Nigeria’s energy profile is like in the context of the world energy index and what is the relative estimate of Nigeria’s Renewable Energy Base in World’s Renewable Energy Index Profile?  Among others, it was discovered that Nigeria is blessed with diverse alternative energy sources from the various secondary data examined (Hydro-power = 18% and others = 82%).  It is “the others” that this paper seeks to throw more lights on to meet our energy demands.

Keywords: Alternatives, Crisis, Eco-System, Economy, Energy, Hydro-Carbon, Renewable

Environmental Sustainable Building Design and Construction (Published)

Global or national problems are rarely as discrete from one another as we might think. They are often, in fact, linked in complex ways. Both the emergence of global crises, and the policies put in place to address them, can and often do overlap in important ways. Such is the case with the global or national financial crisis which leads to recession in some cases and the broader ongoing global environmental crisis. Amidst this crisis, this paper examinesways of creating sustainable buildings, building design and construction (green buildings) which are structurally stable, functional and healthy for people to live and work in and however reducing carbon dioxide emission both regionally and nationally. Investigations clearly shows that Many natural resources and building materials require mining, processing, refining and ultimately manufacturing, transport and delivery before they are utilized in construction. The energy used during these processes is high and have greater risk of physical, health, financialand environmental implications at large. As a result the emergence of sustainable building, or green building, has brought about an awareness of what the building industry can do to curb high energy use, minimize waste, and create environments that are healthy and productive.

Keywords: Design, Energy, Green Building, Structurally Stable


The present energy crisis has stimulated various research programmes to evaluate energy potentials of renewable energy sources. This work evaluated and compared the energy produced from anaerobic digestion of maize stalk (MS), maize cobs (MC) and rice straw (RS) by batch experiment at mesophilic temperature (37◦C). The study was carried out in a laboratory scale batch digester. The digestion bottles were fed with 9.95, 11.70 and 7.53 g, respectively, which were calculated. The digestion took place for a period of 34 days after which the gas production was noticed to be below 1% of the total gas produced till that time. The biogas yields from organic dry matter (oDM) of MS, MC and RS were found to be 357.10 l. kg-1 oDM, 514.31 oDM and 324.54 l. kg-1 oDM respectively after 34 days digestion time. Methane yields (oDM) of MS, MC and RS were also found to be 222.39 l.CH4 kg-1 oDM, 298.39 l.CH4kg-1 oDM and 211.30 l.CH4kg-1 oDM respectively. The biogas/methane yields from fresh mass (FM) of MS, MC and RS were found to be 147.59 l. kg-1 FM / 91.91 l. kg-1 FM, 180.65 l. kg-1 FM / 104.81 l. CH4kg-1 FM and 177.29 l. kg-1 FM / 115.43 l. CH4kg-1 FM. The equivalent energy of MS,MC and RS were found to be 9.35, 13.47 and 8.35 MJ respectively. Also, MS, MC and RS maize stalk were found to have methane concentrations of 61.9, 58.0 and 65.1%, respectively. This study has established that among MS, MC and RS, MC has the highest biogas and methane yieldsand in turn, energy potential

Keywords: Batch experiment, Energy, biogas potential, maize cob, maize stalk, mesophilic temperature, rice straw


Ghana adopted LPG policy intervention as a recipe of dealing with the domestic cooking energy crises. Since the 1990s, Ghana has made several efforts to promote the usage of LPG as a domestic source of energy with the intention of curbing the problems posed by fuel wood and charcoal production to the vegetation in the country. Drawing from only secondary sources of data for the paper, it has been realized that, there has been an increased rather in the demand for fuel wood and charcoal. The aim of this paper is to examine the policy and the way forward especially now that Ghana may be extracting her own natural gas

Keywords: Charcoal, Energy, Fuel Wood, Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Energy Efficient Housing as a Mitigating Option for Climate Change in Nigeria (Published)

This paper discusses the capacity of energy efficiency in housing to serve as a panacea to climate change. Drawing from secondary sources, the study revealed that energy is required in houses for optimum performance. However, in Nigeria, the energy required is mostly generated from fossil fuel which emits greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. These greenhouse gasses result in the depletion of ozone layer which causes global warming and by extension, climate change. It recommends among other things, proper landscaping, north and south orientation of houses, natural vegetation, natural lighting, the use of energy efficient electrical and mechanical appliances and the use of green power. The paper concluded that energy efficient housing environment that employs these parameters will experience reduced global warming and climate change associated challenges.

Keywords: Climate Change, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Housing, Mitigating Option, Nigeria

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