International Journal of Developing and Emerging Economies (IJDEE)

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Effect of Cooperative Membership and Livelihood Diversification on Farm Income. Evidence from South West Nigeria (Published)

Diversification of livelihood portfolios and cooperative membership over the years has grossly been an avenue to boosting households’ income, and ensuring a safety net to escape poverty. This study hence sets to investigate the cross relationship significances between cooperative membership, livelihood diversification, and farm income among poultry farming households in South west Nigeria, using data collected from 210 households via multistage sampling procedure and analysed using econometric, parametric, and non parametric analytical tools at 95% CI. Result showed that, a larger share (41%) of the poultry farmers has between 1-5 years of poultry farming experience. and about (35%) of the poultry farming households has between 5-6 persons, while use of family labour is predominant in the study area (51.43%) and many (82%) of the poultry farming households are deprived of credit access. Also, about 59.41% of the cooperator category diversified their livelihood activities, while it is 58.72% for the noncooperator category. Mean farm income of the nondiversified households is significantly higher than that of the diversified households, while difference in the farm income level of cooperators and noncooperator households was found insignificant. Furthermore, Gender of household head, household size, Years of farming experience, Primary source of labour, Primary occupation, Farm size, and Cooperative membership, positively guarantees increased farm income while; access to infrastructure, and multidimensional poverty negatively determined farm income level, all at 10%, 1%, 1%, 5%, 5%, 10%, 10%, 1% and 10% probabilistic levels respectively. Finding based recommendations are proffered.

Citation: Popoola, D.P. (2022) Effect of Cooperative Membership and Livelihood Diversification on Farm Income. Evidence from South West Nigeria, International Journal of Developing and Emerging Economies, Vol.10, No.3, pp.38-53

Keywords: Income, South West Nigeria, cooperative membership, livelihood diversification, poultry farm holders

Determinants of Women’s Participation in Micro and Small Scale Enterprises in Ethiopia: A Review (Published)

Ethiopia has prioritized on MSE development for economic growth, employment generation and building an industrial economy. In 1997 the government has designed a National MSEs development and promotion strategy which facilitates and paves the ground for the growth and development of the sector. The strategy was revised in 2010/11 with renewed interests and more ambitious targets on employment and number of entrepreneurs and transition to medium size level. The objective of the review was identified the most determinants of women participation in MSE. In order to increase participation of women in different types of micro and small-scale enterprises, the relevant intervention area would be to increase access of information, infrastructure, and resources and develop awareness on how to begin small and medium business. Considering the role that participation in MSE plays in improving the living conditions of participants, it is advisable for, accumulate asset for build new investment, unemployed people and for those who receive meager wage to engage in MSE.

Keywords: Asset holding, Income, Micro and small scale enterprises, Participation, Women, saving


Currency depreciation has been lauded as a means of improving a country’s trade balance borrowing from the Marshall Lerner Condition that the sum of the elasticity or the coefficient of the trade balance in respect of the exchange rate be greater or equal to unity. This paper examined exchange rate and trade balance in Ghana testing the validity of the Marshall Lerner Condition at aggregate level. The data spanned from 1980-2013 sourced from World Development Indicators. Co integration and vector error correction mechanism (VECM) was used to estimate the short as well as the long run parameters. The result of the findings showed that real effective exchange is negatively linked to trade balance in long run. In the short run the lag one coefficient shows a positive sign implying that trade balance deteriorate in the short run due to some contractual obligations already signed by the domestic country with the trading partners. However in the long run the coefficient shows that a depreciation of cedi all things being equal will lead to an improvement in Ghana’s trade balance. Though the Marshall Lerner condition is not met in Ghana because of the REER coefficient less than unity but evidence from the result indicates that depreciation can be used to improve on the trade balance. The estimated coefficient of the error correction term is -0.3696 which implies that the speed of adjustment is approximately 37. percent per quarter. This negative and significant coefficient is an indication that co integrating relationship exists among the variables. The paper recommends that Ghana should devalue its currency to move from the deficit side of the J curve to the surplus side since evidence from the result shows that depreciation or devaluation can substantially improves the trade balance in the long run.

Keywords: Currency depreciation, Exports, Imports, Income, Marshall Lerner Condition, Trade balance

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