In the rural areas of Pakistan, farmers mostly use their family labor including women for production of crop. Rural women are very active in diverse agricultural activities (i.e. pre-harvest, post-harvest). Women from poor households engage in a variety of income-generating and expenditure-saving activities. They are twice as likely as men to be involved in agriculture related activities. Pakistani rural women lagging behind as compared to other developed country women due to many reasons like lack of training programme about new techniques of crop production, lack of resources, little support by agricultural extension services etc. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess the training needs of the rural women in crop production Karor Lal Eson, District Layyah, which will be helpful for extension organizations to develop their future strategies for rural women. A sample of 120 female respondents was selected randomly from Tehsil Karor Lal Eson, District Layyah through multistage random sampling technique. The results of the study revealed that a large majority (70.8%) of the respondents were illiterate. A simple majority (50.8%) of the respondent spent 2 to 4 hours in land preparation and sowing practices. While about one-fifth (19.2%) of the respondents spent 2 to 4 hours in broad casting of seed/fertilizer. However, in crop production activities including broadcasting of seed/fertilize (mean= 3.35), plant protection (mean= 3.52), thinning (mean= 2.84) and grading of seeds (mean= 2.81) they were less competent and need to educate and train about these tasks.
LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION AND BENEFITS OF THE NATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR FOOD SECURITY (NPFS) AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
This study assessed the level of participation and benefits of the National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) among rural women farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) is a five year nationwide Programme for Food Security launched in 2001 in Nigeria with the objective to increase and stabilize food production rapidly and sustainably through the wide spread dissemination of improved technologies and management practices in areas with high potential, and to create an economic and social environment conducive to food production as well as reaching some 30,000 farming families in each selected areas (FGN, 2006) Primary data were collected through field survey with well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results obtained indicated that radio was the major source of information to majority (28.3%) of the rural women participants. More so, majority (84.40%) of the women were not involved in planning NPFS programmes. Further analysis showed that majority (56.7%) of the rural women farmers merely participated in decision making process at information receiving level. Borehole facilities (39.4%) and community seed production (36.1%) were the major components benefited by majority of the women. It was concluded that the objectives of NPFS has not been effectively realized among the rural women due to their low level of participation in programme planning and implementation. Involvement of stakeholders in planning process ensures successful implementation of programmes since their felt needs are factored in during the process.
Rural women farmers play significant role in both agricultural production and home management. Despite these roles, their saving capacity seems to have been empirically documented in Ebonyi State Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique involving three stages was employed in the section of 180 respondents. Results showed that at 1% level of significant; household size, farm cash income, farm output and distance to nearest market were the major determinants of saving capacity. The women mainly save in non-cash way which involved saving through investment in livestock production and storage of farm produce. However, minority of the women that practice cash saving, safe keep their money in the house and lending of money to fellow needy farmers. Fear of bank failure, inadequate income due to lack of access to productive resources and low returns, high consumption rate out of available income, and bureaucracy involved in opening bank account were identified as the major constraints to rural women farmers saving capacity. The study based on the finding recommended the creation of enabling socio-economic environment that will increase the rural women farm income through market creation for farm output and subsidy in the price of farm input. Again, the rural financial intermediaries should encourage farmers to save by raising the interest paid on saving; this will discourage farmers from saving in kind or hoarding cash in the house which usually lead to loss of wealth in case of thefts, burglaries. Finally, Government and banks should create channels through which farmers especially rural women farmers can be educated on saving modalities; this will not only encourage investment and consequently their saving capacity.