Carnival Activity and Economic Development of Youths in Southern Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria: Implication for Environmental Adult Education (Published)
This paper investigated carnival activity and economic development of youths in Southern Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria: Implication for environmental adult education. To achieve the purpose of this study, one (1) null hypothesis was formulated to direct the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample was made of five hundred and forty four (544) respondents drawn from the area of the study. The instruments for data collection were Carnival Activity Questionnaire (CAQ) and Economic Development Questionnaire (EDQ) developed by the researchers which were validated by three (3) experts in Measurement and Evaluation. The reliability was established through test-retest reliability. Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis was adopted to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed that carnival activities had significant influence on economic development of the State. It was therefore recommended that the Calabar annual carnival should be decentralized and extended to other zones and Local Government Areas of the State to enable them showcase their tourism potentials which has remain in obscurity.
The role of women in the economy of Ehugbo during the colonial period has remained largely understudied by historians. This is in spite of the fact that both in terms of their numerical strength and economic importance, women’s role in Ehugbo deserves attention. This paper argued that through their collective and individual activities, the women-folk, both as mothers, farmers, traders and producers, wielded enough economic power to contribute significantly to community, state and international development. They were responsive and receptive to economic opportunities and innovations. This did not obfuscate the fact that during the colonial period, the people’s efforts and resources were not used for the development of their area but were rather exported to the metropolitan country. Also since it was reasoned that a woman’s place in the society was the home, the colonial government never thought in terms of encouraging the women in develop their potentials through its administrative and economic policies neither was it deemed expedient by the colonial government to integrate the women into the development process of the colonized areas. It is argued that in their various endeavours, women demonstrated remarkable creativity, ingenuity and entrepreneurship, which enabled them to face the challenges of the period. With their economic power, the women were well placed to actively participate in the development of the area.
This paper examines and ascertains how the contributions of Richard Cantillon have been relevant to the development of the Nigerian economy. In doing this, the economic thoughts of Richard Cantillon were critically examined in order to see how these issues raised have been affecting the Nigerian economy. Political economy and descriptive approaches were used to x-ray the relevance of Richard CantillonвЂ™s contributions to NigeriaвЂ™s development. His contributions among others include: the nature of wealth, social and economic organization of people, wages of labour, theory of values, population problems and the use of gold and silver, barter, prices, circulation of money, interest, foreign trade, foreign exchange and banking and credit. The findings of the study revealed that these contributions are of great relevance to economic development in generally, but have not specifically contributed to the development of Nigerian economy. This is seen in the areas of low per capita income, negative attitude to work, inevitable population problems, persistent increase in prices, high lending interest rate, unfavourable terms of trade, incessant and diversion of public funds into private business rather than the real economy, and without doubt Nigeria has no place in foreign trade. Based on the foregoing, it was concluded that all these ugly trends accounted for the reason why economic development is not at sight in Nigeria. Thus, it was recommended that the monetary authorities should initiate sound monetary policies. Also, these monetary policies should be complemented with effective fiscal policies in order to put the Nigerian economy back to path of economic growth and development.