European Journal of Food Science and Technology (EJFST)

EA Journals


Effect of Fermentation Time and Blending Ratio on Nutrients and Some Anti Nutrient Composition of Complementary Flour (Published)

Most complementary foods used in low income households are often characterized by low nutrient density, poor protein quality, low mineral bioavailability, and low energy. Fermentation and blending are an easily applicable approach to improve the nutrient content and mineral bioavailability of such complementary foods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop nutritionally adequate complementary flour with a safe level of antinutrients. Three fermentation times (0, 24, and 36 hr) and four blends of  composite flour consisting of maize, haricot bean, and cooking banana, respectively, in the proportion of 65:20:15, 60:30:10, 50:35:15, 30:60:10  were used in the formulation with 100% maizeas control. Fermentation causes significant (P˂0.05) reduction in moisture from 9.00 to 6.59%, ash from 2.31 to 1.75%, crude fiber from 5.05 to 3.21%, iron from 5.14 to 4.21mg/100g, calcium from 54.42 to 43.75 mg/100g, condensed tannin from 46.93 to 31.32 mg/100g,  phytate from 70.24 to 36.99 mg/100. On the other hand anincrement of crude fat from 5.12 to 6.43%,  protein  from 13.44  to 14.98%, total carbohydrate  from 70.14  to 72.07%,   energy from 380.39 to 398.83 Kcal/100g, zinc  from 4.41 to 5.24 mg/100g, Vitamin C from 3.99  to 5.75 mg/ml were recorded as fermentation time increased. The proximate composition of composite flour ranged from 1.19 to 2.87% for ash, 6.93 to 7.50% for moisture, 5.31 to 6.23% for crude fat, 2.71 to 5.71% for crude fiber, 9.35% to 18.28% for protein, 66.04 to 77.16 % for carbohydrate and 385.11 to 395.28 Kcal/100g for energy value. Substitution of haricot bean and cooking banana to maize flour increased in (mg/100g) calcium content from 27.80 to 61.43, iron from 3.50 to 5.69, zinc from 3.07 to 6.24, phytate from 2.04 to107.21 and condensed tannin from 1.44 to 74.60 in formulated composite flour. Vitamin C content of complementary flour increased from 2.97 to 5.55 mg/ml as cooking banana proportion level increased. Based on  the present  finding  fermentation and substitution of maize with haricot bean and cooking  banana could be,  recommended  in the production of nutritious  complementary food  for older infants and young children.

Keywords: Antinutrients, Minerals, Proximate Composition, composite flour


African oak is one of the underutilized legumes in Nigeria. Information on various parts of this legume is required to enhance its utilization in foods and food products. Feeding of fowls with the flour made from the aril cap of the seed showed no harmful effect on them. The flour was then analyzed for chemical properties. Proximate analysis showed that the cap was appreciable in protein (5.69%), fat (18.5%), carbohydrates (63.91%), and fibre (5.4%) but low in ash (1.5%). The value of each of the anti – nutrients analyzed was below the lethal level. Although the cap was found to be low in ash content, it had appreciable amounts of some essential elements. These are sodium (7.10±1.00), potassium (148.0±0.10), calcium (7.02±0.00), magnesium (109.12±1.02 ppm), phosphorus (11.20±1.10 ppm), and iron (0.25±0.02mg/g).The vitamin components of the cap determined were A (234.7±0.00µg/g), C (4.0±1.00mg/100g), E (1.1±0.02mg/100g) and the B – vitamins; B1, B2, B6 and B12 (2.0±1.01, 33.0±0.11, 4.3±1.00 and 4.8±0.10)mg/100g, showing good amounts of the vitamins. Due to high proximate, vitamins, minerals and insignificant anti – nutrient compositions of the aril cap of the African oak seed, it could be used in both human and animal foods. There is therefore a need for food industries and feed formulators to utilize the cap.

Keywords: African Oak, Anti – Nutrients, Minerals, Proximate, Vitamins

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