European Journal of Food Science and Technology (EJFST)

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Determination and Comparison of Total Aflatoxin Levels in Groundnuts from Four Major Markets in Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)

Aflatoxins (Aspergillus flavus toxins) are poisonous substances produced by some fungi on crops, foods, and feeds. The study was carried out to determine and to compare total aflatoxin levels in groundnuts sold in Lagos markets, Nigeria. Microbiological and toxicology tests were carried out on raw, boiled, and roasted groundnuts from the same source. The microbiological test was carried out to detect the fungi that produce aflatoxins as their secondary metabolite. The groundnuts samples were cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). The isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods, characteristics such as presence of spores, shape, colour of spores and presence of septa were used in identification. Aspergillus flavus (75%; percentage of occurrence) was the most frequently isolated fungus from the groundnut samples. The other contaminant isolated from the samples were Aspergillus niger (25%). The toxicology analysis was carried out to determine the production of aflatoxins and the level present in the groundnut. This was carried out using a Romer Mycosep Column kit for aflatoxin to clean-up, and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to detect the aflatoxins and determine the levels. Total aflatoxins were detected in the groundnuts, and they ranged between 0.36 ppb and 0.42 ppb. The levels of total aflatoxins were not beyond the regulatory standard of National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control- NAFDAC (for ready to eat food, 4µg/kg while food that will still undergo processing 20µg/kg). Thus, the groundnut samples from the four markets are fit for consumption.

Keywords: Aflatoxins, Aspergillus flavus, Mycotoxins, food contaminants, groundnut, microbiological test, toxicology test

Evaluating the quality parameters of groundnuts seeds and cake (Arachis hypogaea L.) in relation to Sudanese Standard and Metrology Organization SSMO (1995) (Published)

This study was conducted in ten groundnut oil expellers in Kordofan state, the aim of study to Evaluation the quality parameters of groundnuts seeds and cake. Ten samples of groundnut oil were collected from the four major oil producing localities of the Greater Kordofan region i.e. Sheikan (Five expellers), Elnuhud (Three expellers), Elrahad (One), and Um Rowaba (One expeller). The oil samples (two samples from each expeller) were collected and kept in dry bottles sealed tidily and labeled, then transferred to the laboratory to assess the quality parameters, The study revealed that the quality parameters of groundnut seeds raveled that there were it higher percentage of impurity with low percentage of oil content. Also it had no dead insect and had good level of moisture and fiber content. The mean Ash content was found (1.60 %) while the samples E8, and E9 had signification lowest lower than specification range (1- 3).The mean protein was (23.9 %). The SSMO, established range (22-30%) these result is agreed with only E1 and E7. The Carbohydrate content was (27.46%).The sample E10 has significant highest carbohydrate content while the sample E5 had signification lowest content among all samples studied. Through thesis study all Expellers were highest than acceptable limit for the small seeds and crashed seed. Concerning weight of 1000 seeds only expellers E4 and E5 within acceptable limit, also all the oil expellers were free from death insects. The moisture content of the cake more than 50% of expellers were highest than the acceptable level. The mean ash content were higher than established limit in E3, E4and E5 while the other expellers within established limit. The study revealed the expellers E5, E7, E9 and E10 had significantly lower than the acceptable level about the mean Protein content. The fiber content expellers E1, E3, E4, E6 and E8 had significantly lower than the acceptable level.

Awad M. Babeker, A. A. Abdalla and A. R. Ahmed (2022) Evaluation the quality parameters of groundnuts seeds and cake (Arachis hypogaea L.) in relation to Sudanese Standard and Metrology Organization SSMO (1995),


Keywords: SSMO1995., chemical evaluation, comparative, expellers, groundnut

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