European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies (EJELLS)

EA Journals


Through Archetypal Criticism in Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice (Published)

This paper presents a brief overview of archetypal criticism, a literary theory that seeks to identify universal patterns and themes in literature rooted in the human psyche. It is based on the idea of archetypes, symbols and motifs in the collective unconscious of humanity, popularized by Carl Jung. As applied to literature, the theory of archetypal criticism involves exploring these universal themes and symbols in work and how they reflect the human condition. The paper aims to analyze William Shakespeare’s tragedy The Merchant of Venice through the lens of archetypal criticism to uncover deeper meanings in the literature. The play explores themes of justice, mercy, and true love through its complicated characters and dramatic plot. Through archetypal criticism, the play delves deeper into its universal meaning. It reveals psychological and emotional truths about the human condition, inviting reflection on beliefs and values that shape our experiences in the world. The paper explores the play by applying archetypal criticism. There are archetype characters of Shylock and Jessica that embody the outsider archetype as Jews in a predominantly Christian society and moneylenders. The archetypal criticism also explores different forms of love, including romantic love between Bassanio and Portia, the friendship between Antonio and Bassanio, and the complex relationship between Shylock and Jessica. The theme of revenge is embodied by Shylock and depicts an archetype. The play features archetypal symbols, including the casket challenge, the green-eyed monster, the test of worthiness, and the trickster. Some situations in the play and the play’s ending are also significant from an archetypal perspective.

Keywords: Archetypal, Character, Theme, archetype, symbol, the merchant of Venice

An Approach to Reevaluating and Understanding Chekhov in the Perspective of Theme, Motif, Symbol and Writing Style (Published)

Anthon   Chekhov   can   strikingly   be   marked   out   for   his   artistic   ingenuity in   composing   his    short   stories    imbued    with   cornucopia   of    ideas   with   pinpoint   accuracy. He   has   amassed    so    many   cutting    edge   ideas   which   represent    the   matter   of    opinions    which   can    be   often    described   as   a   sense   of   sentimental, emotive,   equivocal, weird, funny, and   even   haunting and   taunting .  A gushing   outlet of   emotional   intelligence   and   essence   of    life   are   found   in   Anthon   Chekhov’s   writing. Chekhovian   short  stories    do   not  let  the  reader   a  solid   message   rather   it  caters  to  the  readers  to   give   room   to   extract   the   themes  of   the   stories   from  abyss of  twist and turn  . Russian   literature    owes    to    Chekhov    by    large   for   he   got   the   nerves   of    the   Russian   people    and    their    turn   of    mind.  His    delineation   of   the   characters   is    enshrouded   in   delicate   touch   and    his   dealings   with   the   characters   has   an   emollient   tone. His experiential   learning   with   the   social    maladies   bounds him to present the scenario    of decadent, corroding and worked-up   society of Russia. His    play   with   the   word   also   contributes   to    the creation   of   the    characterization   more    sharply    and   nicely. His   words   are   woven into inviting creation   with a   single   thread   polished with fine   texture. His   plot  is  pregnant  with  comical   references  resulting  in  presenting  the  malaise   of  Russian   society. Broadly speaking, his    writing   has   always   been   the showcases of   human   characters   and    complexities   of the world.

Keywords: Characters, Chekhov, Motif, Symbols, Theme, Writing Style

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