European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies (EJELLS)

EA Journals


Through Archetypal Criticism in Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice (Published)

This paper presents a brief overview of archetypal criticism, a literary theory that seeks to identify universal patterns and themes in literature rooted in the human psyche. It is based on the idea of archetypes, symbols and motifs in the collective unconscious of humanity, popularized by Carl Jung. As applied to literature, the theory of archetypal criticism involves exploring these universal themes and symbols in work and how they reflect the human condition. The paper aims to analyze William Shakespeare’s tragedy The Merchant of Venice through the lens of archetypal criticism to uncover deeper meanings in the literature. The play explores themes of justice, mercy, and true love through its complicated characters and dramatic plot. Through archetypal criticism, the play delves deeper into its universal meaning. It reveals psychological and emotional truths about the human condition, inviting reflection on beliefs and values that shape our experiences in the world. The paper explores the play by applying archetypal criticism. There are archetype characters of Shylock and Jessica that embody the outsider archetype as Jews in a predominantly Christian society and moneylenders. The archetypal criticism also explores different forms of love, including romantic love between Bassanio and Portia, the friendship between Antonio and Bassanio, and the complex relationship between Shylock and Jessica. The theme of revenge is embodied by Shylock and depicts an archetype. The play features archetypal symbols, including the casket challenge, the green-eyed monster, the test of worthiness, and the trickster. Some situations in the play and the play’s ending are also significant from an archetypal perspective.

Keywords: Archetypal, Character, Theme, archetype, symbol, the merchant of Venice

Nature is the Teacher to Santiago: A Symbolical Expression of Human Struggle in Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ (Published)

The Old Man and The Sea’ (1951) is an epoch-making creation, of Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899-1961), a foremost American iconoclast, who targets on the representation of human struggles through the outreaching of different symbols and signs. Hemingway was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 and Nobel Prize in 1954 for this outstanding creation. Here, he intends to create a symbol for human existence through the struggles of Santiago-a Cuban fisherman as well as the protagonist in this novella. The struggles of Santiago are the manifestations of any individual’s capabilities of enduring the ultimate nature. Santiago is the incarnation of extreme reality who will be symbolized here as the unbeatable warrior of nature with which, he learns to believe in himself only because, he is the source of his own greatness and determination in the heart of the sea. Like Hemingway, he feels honor and proud in facing the struggle and in trying to keep up well with the passage of time, not being defeated by death or destruction. However, the aim of this further study is to intensify the things related to the various usages of symbols or sings by the writer here

Keywords: Adventure, Bravery, Perseverance, imagery, struggle, symbol


The purpose of this study is to shed light on esthetic uses of Greek myth, its artistic and realistic uses, and the reasons for the allusions to it in contemporary poetry. Selected poetic texts will be analyzed for the use which some modern poets make of the legend of Sisyphus for expressing their views and for showing how they perceived its artistic value. Among these poets are Al-Sayyāb, Al-Bayātī , Adonis, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Muqāliḥ, as well as the Palestinians Aḥmad Daḥbūr, Murīd al-Barghūthī and Fārūq Muwāsī, all of whom made use of the legend in order to express both suffering and hope in the crisis of Arabs in current times, in an attempt to bring these across to the reader.

Keywords: Ancient, Myth, Sisyphus, Suffering, exile., nation, struggle, symbol

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