Antimicrobial Efficacy of Guiera Senegalensis and Prosopis Africana Leave Extract on Some Bacterial Pathogens (Published)
The bioactive components of the leaves of Guiera senegalensis and Prosopis africana were extracted using ethanol, aqueous and crude extraction methods. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids, while glycosides and alkaloids were absent in P. africana and G. senegalensis respectively. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of G. senegalensis showed 1.352mg/100g of flavonoids and 14.59mg/100g of phenols. Prosopis africana quantitatively showed 3.041mg/100g flavonoids and 10.22mg/100g phenol content. The various extracts were investigated for their antibacterial activity using agar diffusion methods of susceptibility testing against the test organisms. The ethanolic extract of Prosopis africana demonstrated the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi (4.7mm, 4mm and 4mm zones of inhibition respectively) while the least activity was demonstrated by aqueous extract against Escherichia coli (1mm inhibition zone). The ethanolic extract of G. senegalensis also inhibited Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with (3.5mm, 3mm, and 2.8mm of zones of inhibitions respectively). The crude and the aqueous extracts of both plants showed lower zones of inhibition against all the three organisms. This study shows that the use of G. senegalensis and Prosopis africana leaves as traditional medicine has a lot of potential in treatment of antimicrobial infections with further standardization.