European Journal of Business and Innovation Research (EJBIR)

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Competitive Advantage

Business Intelligence and Competitive Advantage of Hotels in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)

This study was carried out to examine the influence of business intelligence on competitive advantage of hotels in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. The survey research design was used in the study. The study had a population of 1,806 and a sample size of 327 determined with Taro Yamane’s formula for sample size determination. The questionnaire was the primary instrument used in data collection. The instrument recorded 73.7% response rate. Data analysis was done with simple regression method. Results of data analysis indicated that data management system   (Beta =1.252, t=3.547, p>0.05) has a  insignificant influence on hotels competitive advantage in Akwa Ibom State. It also indicated that mobile devices (Beta= 1.095, t= 2.375, p<0.05) have a significant influence on hotels competitive advantage in Akwa Ibom State. It was concluded that business intelligence can lead to competitive advantage of hotels in Akwa Ibom State. It was recommended that hotels in Akwa Ibom State provide for a sound and reliable data management system that can facilitate its capacity to make prompt business decisions to aid its operations towards being ahead of others in their line of business. It was also recommended that hotels in Akwa Ibom State use applicable modern devices that can enhance its operations in delivering quality services to various customers in order to earn competitive advantage.

Keywords: Akwa Ibom State, Business Intelligence, Competitive Advantage, Hotels, Nigeria

Analysis of Sustained Competitive Advantage of Palm Cooking Oil Company in Indonesia Using Resource-Based View Approach (Case Study at Pt. Xyz) (Published)

Indonesia is the biggest crude palm oil (CPO) exporter in the world. CPO export gave Indonesia the highest foreign exchange compare to the other sector. The current competition level of pam cooking oil in Indonesia added by the limitation of opening new field urge companies to survive by searching for the source of competitive advantage. The aims of this study are to identify company resources and capabilities and analyse them to obtain the source of sustained competitive advantage for the company. This study uses literature review, in-depth interview and questionnaires to gather the opinion of experts. Data analysis using descriptive qualitative method using Value Chain Analysis (VCA) and Valuable, Rareness, Inimitability, Organization (VRIO) framework as tools. The results showed that there are 16 resources and 15 capabilities identified using VCA. One resource pass the VRIO analysis and become the source of sustained competitive advantage for the company. Four resources and capabilities pass the V, R and O variable and gave temporary competitive advantage to the company. Two capabilities do not fulfil the O variable and gave the company competitive disadvantage. Strategy developed combine several resources and capabilities to produce new resource and capability which are unique and inimitable.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, RBV, VCA, VRIO., palm cooking oil

Entrepreneurial Marketing Practices and Competitive Advantage of Small and Medium Size Enterprises in Nigeria (Published)

Entrepreneurial marketing practices and competitive advantage of small and medium size enterprises in Enugu State was studied to examine the effect of entrepreneurial marketing dimensions on competitive advantage of small and medium size enterprises in Enugu state. The study applied descriptive research design with the aid of survey method in obtaining the data needed. The sample size of the study was 356 owners/managers of small and medium-sized enterprise in Enugu state. Descriptive Statistics and multiple regressions analytical tool were used to analyze the data. Findings reveal that proactiveness has no significant relationship with competitive advantage. Opportunity focuse has statistically significant relationship with competitive advantage. Risk- taking has no significant relationship with competitive advantage. Innovativeness has statistical significance relationship with competitive advantage.  Customer intensity has no statistical significance relationship with competitive advantage; resource leveraging has no statistical significant relationship with competitive advantage. Value creation has significant relationship with competitive advantage. We conclude that SMEs operators should emphasis on innovativeness, opportunity focus, and value creation, this will enable them compete favorably.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Entrepreneurial Marketing, Small and Medium Size Enterprises

The Role of Financial Capital Resource Capabilities in Improving Employee Performance in Courrier Companies in Kenya (Published)

Financial capital in organizations is a key form of asset that exists in various sources and characteristics. Financial capital commonly refers to assets needed by a company to provide goods or services, as measured in terms of money value. The most important sources of financial capital are debt and equity. Debt represents credit from a lender, also known as creditor, and is created when a creditor agrees to lend a sum of assets to a debtor (borrower). It is imperative that firms source for financial resources that will enable purchase of tools and other equipment required by employees in discharging their duties. Equity on the other hand is direct investment into an organization. The initial equity is financed by the principal owner and the start-up team, then equity is obtained for their successive growth from high net worth family members, friends called angel market. This paper is an assessment of the role played by financial capital resource capabilities of a firm to improve employee performance. The study used a target population of 2800 from which a sample of 339 respondents was obtained using Cochran’s formula. Simple random sampling and employed explanatory research design were also used.. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlation and moderated regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that financial capital resource capabilities had a great influence on employee performance, thus played the key role in organization’s performance.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Employee Performance, Financial Capital Resource Capabilities


Strategic management researchers have alluded to the fact that tangible/intangible assets and intangible capabilities contribute to the achievement of organization’s competitive advantage. Thus, this study was conducted owing to the increase in the employment of knowledge workers, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in service delivery, and the upsurge in the number of hotels in the hospitality industry in Makurdi metropolis. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge dissemination and Competitive Advantage (CA). The study adopted ex-post-facto research design and purposive sampling technique. Questionnaire were employed to collect data from employees of selected hotels. Chi-square statistical method was employed to test the research hypothesis. It was found that knowledge dissemination is significantly related to CA. The researchers recommend increased knowledge dissemination via knowledge sharing and transfer among employees and between departments.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Sharing, Knowledge dissemination, Knowledge transfer


The significance of human capital as a determinant of firm performance is gaining recognition in the strategic management literature. The need for relating employee talent to a firm’s competitive advantage is continuing to develop and to gain recognition as a driver in generating competitive advantage. Many firms have explicitly embraced competitive strategies to gain and maintain a lead in their industries. In all the competitive strategies firms have engaged in, human capital has been the driver of competition. This study endeavoured to empirically test the effects of human capital and especially innovation and operational efficiency on competitive advantage in a very dynamic industry of food and beverage. The study sought to answer the following research question: What are the effects of human capital (in innovative adaptation and dynamic operational efficiency) on firms’ ability to attain sustainable competitive advantage within the F & B companies in Kenya? This research entailed a descriptive study design. The study was concerned with describing the characteristics of a unique group of food and beverage firms and their competitiveness. The study concluded that Kenyan firms in the food and beverage industry highly regard human capital as a major contributor to sustainable competitive advantage. The study established that internal processes largely rely on how capabilities are harnessed for competitive advantage.

Keywords: : Human Capital, Competitive Advantage, Innovation, Operational Efficiency

Service Innovation and Competitive Advantage (Published)

Service Innovation suggests how the concept of service can be improved which is already in practice. This can be either refined competence in customer relations, channel of distribution or innovation in technology or it can be combination of all three. Investing in the development of both physical and non-physical components of products and services available for sale can lead to enhanced business prospects, ultimately ensuring success.

This paper attempts to indentify core ingredients of service innovation and their impact on Online B2B industry in attaining competitive advantage with a resource based view. The difference found in organizational performance in the context of Online Business can be partially explained by Information Technology, Human Resource Management, Research & Development and strategic alliances practices and policies.

Furthermore, the research also attempts to establish how proper implementation of Human Resource Management practices, experienced adoption of Information Technology and IT-enabled services, well connected and inform Research and development can all together render greater service innovation opportunities whereas strategic alliance is the mediocre variable which requires lots of efforts to impact positively on service innovation.


Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Development, Human Resources, Information Technology, Research, Service Innovation, Strategic Alliances

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