Investigations on Forage Yield, Yield Parameters of Oats Varieties and Lines Grown Under Irrigated Conditions in Konya (Published)
Oat is an important cereal as human food and animal feed. In this research, it was aimed to evaluate some oat (Avena sativa L.) genotypes (lines and cultivars) sown at the end of March for forage yield and forage quality parameters. Research was carried out in Konya irrigated conditions, in 2018 seasons with 12 oat genotypes [nine lines (BDY-1, BDY-2, BDY-3, BDY-4, BDY-5, BDY-6, BDY-7, BDY-8, BDY-9) and three were registered cultivars (Diriliş, Cheocota, Seydişehir)]. The trial was established according to the Randomized Blocks Experimental Design with three replications. Oats genotypes were harvested at milk to dough period. In research, the traits such as; days to heading, green forage yield, dry forage yield, plant height, the number of stems per square meter, the number of fertil stems per square meter, fertile cluster ratio, the number of node per stems, stem thickness, 10 stem weight, leaves weight, leaf stem ratio, cluster length, flag leaf length and the number of leaves per stems.
Citation: Çeri S. and Acar R. (2022) Investigations on Forage Yield, Yield Parameters of Oats Varieties and Lines Grown Under Irrigated Conditions in Konya, European Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Research, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 16-32
Review on Macronutrient in Agronomy crops (Published)
Macronutrients play a very important role in plant growth and development. Three main elements are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (N, P, K) and are required in abundance. They must be readily available through soil medium or fertilizer. The secondary elements are sulfur, calcium, and magnesium (S, Ca, Mg). The problem of low soil fertility and poor plant nutrition does not only affect crop yields but also crop quality. Various nutrient elements influence biochemical processes and eventually affect the overall quality of various crops and their products. Depending on the amount that is available for plant uptake, these nutrients influence crop yields and quality and plants treated with absence of nutrients in the nutrient solution showed that N and Ca were the most limiting nutrients to biomass production The crop quality characteristics mostly reported to be affected by plant nutrition include: proteins, carbohydrate, sucrose and fructose content in grains, root crops, tuber crops and fruits; vitamins like beta-carotene content in fruits and tubers; moisture content at storage in cereal grains, potato tuber density; and frying colours, and fruit weight. It has been noted that essential and beneficial nutrient elements contribute to crop quality through functioning as raw materials for the synthesis of various plant components that have food value to humans and animals.
Organic agriculture is the application of organic fertilizers such as Poultry dropping and Cow dung in a nutrient deficient soil to increase and enhance vigorous growth of plant and crop yield, in which all input is based on natural sources of agriculture which has no negative effect on the performance of crops, improves the fertility in the soil and causes no harm to the environment. A comparative study on the “The evaluation of the Effect of Cow Dung and Poultry Dropping” on Maize (Zea mays) Kernel Yield was carried out at Niger Delta University Teaching and Research Farm, Amassoma, in 2013/2014 cropping season. The treatments consisting of 20t/ha of Poultry dropping, 20t/ha of Cow dung and No treatment in which each treatment was replicated four (4) times. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Some baseline agronomic data were collected such as, Plant height, Leaf area, Number of nodes, First cob attachment, Weight of 1000 kernels of corn and as well as the physicochemical characterization of the soil. The result was subjected to analysis of variance and it shows that the treatment with 20t/ha of Poultry dropping had significant difference compare to Cow dung and that of the control. 1000 kernel weight of Maize with the highest mean value of 154.97g and 144.91g were obtained from the treatment applied with 20t/ha of poultry dropping and 20t/ha of cow dung respectively. The mean Corn kernel yield in ton per hectare had the highest mean value of 1.49 was obtained from the treatment with 20t/ha of poultry dropping followed by 20t/ha of cow dung while the least mean of corn kernel yield in t/ha was obtained from the treatment with no application of organic manure. Findings indicate that, the organic manures applied enhanced the growth and yield performances of the crop.
Effect of Organic (Cow Dung Slurry) and Inorganic (N: P: K 15:15:15) Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon Lycopersicum) in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria (Published)
A pot experiment was conducted in April 2018 in faculty of Agriculture, Kogi state university, Anyigba. The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments in four replications and results obtained were subjected to analysis using ANOVA and means were separated at 5% level of probability using Fisher Least Significant Difference Test. The treatment consisted of a control (T0), 2 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T1), 4 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T2), 6 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T3), 8 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T4).Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, number of branches, number of fruit per plant, and fruit diameter respectively. It was observed that the organic and inorganic manure used increased the soil physical-chemical properties as well as the performance parameters of the test crop (Tomato). Recommendation was made at the rate of 6t/ha of cow dung slurry +50kg of NPK 15:15:15 (T4) for optimum yield and performance of tomato.
Effect of Neem Seed Cake and Inorganic Fertilizer on Yield of Tomato and Soil Properties in Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria (Published)
Field trials were conducted at the Institute for Agricultural Research Irrigation Farm, Samaru Zaria, in the northern Guinea savanna ecological zone of Nigeria in 2009/2010, 2010/2011 dry seasons to study the integrated effect of neem seed cake and inorganic fertilizer on tomato. The treatments consisted of three levels of NSC (0, 2 and 4 t ha-1) and four levels of inorganic fertilizer (0, ¼, ½ and Full Fertilizer recommended Rate (FFR, NPK 15:15:15) for tomato in northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Mean fruit weight and fruit yield were determined. Matured ripe fruits were analyzed for biochemical properties such as reducing sugars, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid and titratable acidity. Effect of treatments on soil properties were also determined by analyzing the treated soils after harvest. Results obtained showed that tomato responded positively to the treatments. Highest fruit yield of 14.54 and 19.70 t/ha were obtained from 2tons/ha neem seed cake + ½ Fertilizer rate in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 respectively. Although the effect of complementary application of NSC and inorganic fertilizer on tomato was not significant among the treatments of such combinations, highest fruit yield increase over the control were 103.1% and197% for 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 respectively. Effects of treatments on ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and reducing sugars were not significant. The concentrations of plant tissue N, P and K were higher than the control at the end of second year of experiment. In the first year of trial pH (H2O) varied from 6.2 to 6.7, whereas in the second year, it varied from 6.1 to 6.3. The values of soil OC and N increased over the years. Combinations of 2NC + ½ FR and 4NC + ½ FR proved superior for tomato fruit yield and mean fruit weight than other treatments in this study.
Determination of the Effect of Agro-Inputs Utilization on Yield and Income of Community-Based Natural Resource Management Rice Farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
This study determined the effect of agro-inputs utilization on yield and income of community-based Natural Resource Management Programme (CBNRMP) Rice Farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to: assess the socio-economic characteristics of rice farmers under CBNRMP, identify the agro-inputs made available to rice farmers through their service providers, etc. Data were obtained from primary and secondary sources for the purpose of this study. The results revealed that 70% of the respondents were males, 40% of the respondents were within the age range of 41-51years. Majority (90%) of the respondents were married, 85% of the respondents have formal education and majority of the respondents belong to farmers’ cooperatives. The t-test analysis of the effects of agro-inputs utilization on yield and income of CBNRMP rice farmers were significant. Increased government supports for mobilization of rice farmers for participation and sustained provision of agro-inputs were therefore recommended.
Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Yield, Lycopene and Some Minerals in Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill) Fruit. (Published)
Lycopene, an antioxidant contained in tomatoes, which is found to reduce the risk of cancer can be affected by management practices. A field experiment was carried out behind Recreational Centre of Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (I.A.R&T), Moor Plantation, Ibadan (latitude 7o22’N and longitude 3o50’SE). The experiment was done during the rainy season of 2014 between May and July. Effectiveness of organic and inorganic fertilizers in the growth, yield and nutrient composition of tomato were compared in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments which include sole application each of NPK and Organic fertilizer, there complimentary application and the control replicated three times. Tomato premier (variety UC-82-B) was planted at 50 cm × 50 cm at 1 seedling per stand. The Aleshinloye Compost (Grade B) organic fertilizer was applied two weeks before transplanting at 100 kgN/ha at the appropriate plots while NPK 15:15:15 was applied 2 weeks after transplanting at 100kgN/ha. Parameters assessed were plant height (cm), number of leaves, number of branches, stem girth (mm) while the yield parameters observed were days to 50 % flowering, number of flowers/plot, number of flowers aborted, number of rotten fruits/plot, number of fruits/plot and fruit weight (g). Nutrient component determined in the laboratory were lycopene, potassium and sodium. The fertilizer sources did not affect the growth of tomato but were better than the control plots. At 8 weeks after transplanting (8 WAT), NPK 15:15:15 treated plant had more flower abortion of 34.7 than the lowest flower abortion of 24.67 from the control plots. NPK 15:15:15 at 100 kgN/ha gave the highest fruit yield of 18.60 t/ha while the lowest yield (4.07 t/ha) was obtained from the control plots. Highest value of lycopene content of 2.65 % was found in plots supplied with NPK but is comparable with the control plot but higher than other sources. Potassium content of 20.80 % was lowest in NPK plots while potassium accumulation of 23.20% was highest in the control but not different statistically from each other. Sodium content had highest percentage in untreated plot with 0.43 % and sodium ion was lowest in NPK + organic treated plot which have the value of 0.31%.
Growth and Fruit Yield of Tomato As Influenced by Combined Use of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer in Kabba, Nigeria (Published)
Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of integrated use of chemical and organic fertilizers on growth and fruit yield of tomato in Kabba College of Agriculture. The experiment involved five treatments which are as follows: 125kh/ha NPK+3t/ha poultry manure, 125kg/ha NPK+3t/ha cow dung, 125kg/ha NPK+3t/ha kitchen waste, 125kg/ha NPK 15:15:15 and Control. The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated four times. The parameters taken on soil chemical properties are soil pH, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and soil organic matter. Growth and yield parameters taken are as follows: plant height (cm), number of leaves, and stem girth (cm), number of fruit per plant, fruit length (cm), fruit diameter (cm) and yield per land area (kg/ha). Result obtained from parameters studied (Plant height, leaf numbers, branch number, stem girth, fruit number per plant and fruits weight) revealed that tomato performed better (P<0.05) with the application of 125kg/ha NPK+3t/ha poultry manure application. The also, study showed that use of inorganic and organic fertilizer had better effects on growth and yield of tomato. Therefore, for good yield and better productivity of tomato, a combination of 125kg/ha NPK fertilizer + 3t/ha poultry waste is recommended for tomato production in the study area.
Second generation Gmelina arborea coppice plantation in Awi, Cross River State, Nigeria was assessed for stocking and yield. The plantation was divided into five strata (A-E), a stratified random sampling technique was used to select sample plots, Gmelina arborea trees that were 30cm and above were measured. Results revealed that the plantation had 246 trees/ha stocking rate; representing 19.2% stocking density and mean volume of 172.54M3/ha. It was observed that improved silvicultural operations such as thinning, pruning, fire tracing and prevention illegal farming activities would have increased the yield in the plantation. Government should maintain and fill the existing gaps in the plantation by replanting
EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF THE THIRD NATIONAL FADAMA DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (FADAMA 111) ON FOOD PRODUCTION AMONG FARMERS IN KWANDE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
The study was conducted to find out the effect of Fadama 111 project on crop yield among the farmers participating in the project in Kwande Local Government of Benue State, Nigeria. Fadama 111 is the third phase of the Fadama Project in Nigeria, and is essentially an agricultural diversification project. The project which is demand-driven is funded by the World Bank, Federal Government, State and Local Governments in Nigeria. In conducting the study, 100 participants in the project were selected from Kwande Local Government of Benue State. To obtain a random sample, the stratified random sampling technique was used. The study area was stratified into four, namely: Nanev, Turan, Shangev-ya and Kyurav-ya clans. Twenty-five participants were selected from each stratum, giving a sample size of 100 farmers. Data for the study was collected with the use of a 5-point likert rating scale to enable the farmers rate the extent of increase in their crop yield. The data collected was analyzed using the mean and population t-test to test the significance of difference between sample and population means at 95 % confidence level (P ≤ 0.05). The difference between the sample mean of 4.2909 and population mean of 4.2920 was found to be insignificant. Therefore, the farmers were unanimous that their participation in Fadama 111 project has significantly increased their crop yield. The null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the sample and population mean responses of the participants regarding how their participation has affected their crop yield was accepted, while the alternative hypothesis was rejected. Some recommendations were made