Organic agriculture is the application of organic fertilizers such as Poultry dropping and Cow dung in a nutrient deficient soil to increase and enhance vigorous growth of plant and crop yield, in which all input is based on natural sources of agriculture which has no negative effect on the performance of crops, improves the fertility in the soil and causes no harm to the environment. A comparative study on the “The evaluation of the Effect of Cow Dung and Poultry Dropping” on Maize (Zea mays) Kernel Yield was carried out at Niger Delta University Teaching and Research Farm, Amassoma, in 2013/2014 cropping season. The treatments consisting of 20t/ha of Poultry dropping, 20t/ha of Cow dung and No treatment in which each treatment was replicated four (4) times. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Some baseline agronomic data were collected such as, Plant height, Leaf area, Number of nodes, First cob attachment, Weight of 1000 kernels of corn and as well as the physicochemical characterization of the soil. The result was subjected to analysis of variance and it shows that the treatment with 20t/ha of Poultry dropping had significant difference compare to Cow dung and that of the control. 1000 kernel weight of Maize with the highest mean value of 154.97g and 144.91g were obtained from the treatment applied with 20t/ha of poultry dropping and 20t/ha of cow dung respectively. The mean Corn kernel yield in ton per hectare had the highest mean value of 1.49 was obtained from the treatment with 20t/ha of poultry dropping followed by 20t/ha of cow dung while the least mean of corn kernel yield in t/ha was obtained from the treatment with no application of organic manure. Findings indicate that, the organic manures applied enhanced the growth and yield performances of the crop.
Growth and Yield Response of Lowland Rice L – 34 (Oryza Sativa L.) To Urea Fertilizer and Time of Application (Published)
Accessibility of plants to nutrient depends largely on the ease of contact between the soil and the crop. An experiment on the forms of urea fertilizer and time of application effects on the growth and yield of lowland rice (Oriza sativa) was carried out during 2013 rainy season at the National Cereal Research Institute (NCRI) Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Urea fertilizer in granule and spray were applied at 2 weeks after transplanting (WAT) and 4 weeks after transplanting in 2 x 2 factorial experiments in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) while no fertilizer served as control. Data taken include number of leaves, number of tillers, and days to fifty percent (50%) panicle initiation, number of productive tillers and weight of seed (g/plant). The result showed that leaf production and tillering was best encouraged on fertilized plots than the untreated plants. Fertilizer granule at 2 WAT significantly initiated panicle development faster than other treatments, significantly had more productive tillers/plant and seed yield (22.5 g/plant) than other treatments. Consequently, application of urea fertilizer in granule form at 2weeks after transplanting, tend to reduce nitrogen lost to denitrification in waterlogged soil and make more nutrient available for growth, will be most suitable for lowland rice production under similar soil condition.
Effect of Organic (Cow Dung Slurry) and Inorganic (N: P: K 15:15:15) Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon Lycopersicum) in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria (Published)
A pot experiment was conducted in April 2018 in faculty of Agriculture, Kogi state university, Anyigba. The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments in four replications and results obtained were subjected to analysis using ANOVA and means were separated at 5% level of probability using Fisher Least Significant Difference Test. The treatment consisted of a control (T0), 2 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T1), 4 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T2), 6 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T3), 8 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T4).Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, number of branches, number of fruit per plant, and fruit diameter respectively. It was observed that the organic and inorganic manure used increased the soil physical-chemical properties as well as the performance parameters of the test crop (Tomato). Recommendation was made at the rate of 6t/ha of cow dung slurry +50kg of NPK 15:15:15 (T4) for optimum yield and performance of tomato.
Effect of Neem Seed Cake and Inorganic Fertilizer on Yield of Tomato and Soil Properties in Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria (Published)
Field trials were conducted at the Institute for Agricultural Research Irrigation Farm, Samaru Zaria, in the northern Guinea savanna ecological zone of Nigeria in 2009/2010, 2010/2011 dry seasons to study the integrated effect of neem seed cake and inorganic fertilizer on tomato. The treatments consisted of three levels of NSC (0, 2 and 4 t ha-1) and four levels of inorganic fertilizer (0, ¼, ½ and Full Fertilizer recommended Rate (FFR, NPK 15:15:15) for tomato in northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Mean fruit weight and fruit yield were determined. Matured ripe fruits were analyzed for biochemical properties such as reducing sugars, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid and titratable acidity. Effect of treatments on soil properties were also determined by analyzing the treated soils after harvest. Results obtained showed that tomato responded positively to the treatments. Highest fruit yield of 14.54 and 19.70 t/ha were obtained from 2tons/ha neem seed cake + ½ Fertilizer rate in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 respectively. Although the effect of complementary application of NSC and inorganic fertilizer on tomato was not significant among the treatments of such combinations, highest fruit yield increase over the control were 103.1% and197% for 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 respectively. Effects of treatments on ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and reducing sugars were not significant. The concentrations of plant tissue N, P and K were higher than the control at the end of second year of experiment. In the first year of trial pH (H2O) varied from 6.2 to 6.7, whereas in the second year, it varied from 6.1 to 6.3. The values of soil OC and N increased over the years. Combinations of 2NC + ½ FR and 4NC + ½ FR proved superior for tomato fruit yield and mean fruit weight than other treatments in this study.
Phosphorus Adsorption Isotherms of Some Low Activity Clay Soils As Influenced By Soil Properties and Their Effect on Fertilizer P Recommendations and Yield of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merr.) In Benue State, Nigeria (Published)
The relationship between labile P sorbed to the soil surface and solution P can be described by a quantity-intensity relationship which shows P sorption or desorption as a function of P in the equilibrium solution. Twelve soils in Benue state representing Alfisols, Ultisols and Inceptisols were therefore used to examine the influence of soil properties on the shape and placement of their adsorption curves and yield of soybean. Sorption characteristics were determined in 0.01 M CaCl2 solutions of various P concentrations. For each soil, the amounts of P that gave 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.100, 0.125, 0.150, 0.175, 0.200, 0.225, 0.250 mg kg-1 solution concentrations were estimated from adsorption curves. In the greenhouse, 4 kg of soil from each location was placed in plastic pots. Amount of P estimated from sorption study was added as KH2PO4. The treatments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and soybean seed variety (TGx 1448-2E) was planted and growth and development observed to maturity. Optimum solution P concentration (SPC) was determined for each soil in relation to yield. At harvest, SPC that gave highest grain yield was evaluated for each soil and the quantity of P required (SPR) to achieve this concentration was calculated. Consequently, Odoba would require highest P fertilizer application (604.84 Kg P ha-1), (Tor-Donga 112.31, Abeda-Mbadyul 105.93) would require medium fertilization, (Utonkon 72.75, Katsina-Ala and Ofugo 67.64, Akoodo-Mbakor and Nor 61.26, Ogyoma 39.56, Otobi 33.18 and Abaji-Kpav 22.97 Kg P ha-1)would require low fertilization while Vanam (2.55 Kg P ha-1) would require the least.
Enhancing the Productivity of Moringa Oleifera Lam. For Sustainable Development in Agroforestry (Published)
The study evaluated the effectiveness of NPK (15:15:15), poultry manure, cow dung and green manure of Tithonia diversifolia and Chromolaena odorata leaves on the growth of Moringa oleifera. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 11 treatments replicated 5 times. Data were collected for the growth parameters (height, number of leaves and stem diameter) of the M. oleifera seedlings. It was observed that Moringa seedlings grown on soil treated with 20g of T. diversifolia had significantly (P<0.05) higher plant growth parameters than those on soil with the other treatments including the control. Those treated with NPK had similar higher growth parameters comparable to those plants treated with 10g of T. diversifolia and both 10 and 20g of C. odorata. There were also significant differences in the quantities of the manure and NPK applied on the M. oleifera seedlings. This study shows the effectiveness of T. diversifolia and C. odorata as organic manure for improving and enhancing the growth of M. oleifera. Utilization of such weed species component as green manure, compost material or in improved fallow system will help the poor resource farmer to create more sustainable and productive crop yield.
Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Yield, Lycopene and Some Minerals in Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill) Fruit. (Published)
Lycopene, an antioxidant contained in tomatoes, which is found to reduce the risk of cancer can be affected by management practices. A field experiment was carried out behind Recreational Centre of Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (I.A.R&T), Moor Plantation, Ibadan (latitude 7o22’N and longitude 3o50’SE). The experiment was done during the rainy season of 2014 between May and July. Effectiveness of organic and inorganic fertilizers in the growth, yield and nutrient composition of tomato were compared in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments which include sole application each of NPK and Organic fertilizer, there complimentary application and the control replicated three times. Tomato premier (variety UC-82-B) was planted at 50 cm × 50 cm at 1 seedling per stand. The Aleshinloye Compost (Grade B) organic fertilizer was applied two weeks before transplanting at 100 kgN/ha at the appropriate plots while NPK 15:15:15 was applied 2 weeks after transplanting at 100kgN/ha. Parameters assessed were plant height (cm), number of leaves, number of branches, stem girth (mm) while the yield parameters observed were days to 50 % flowering, number of flowers/plot, number of flowers aborted, number of rotten fruits/plot, number of fruits/plot and fruit weight (g). Nutrient component determined in the laboratory were lycopene, potassium and sodium. The fertilizer sources did not affect the growth of tomato but were better than the control plots. At 8 weeks after transplanting (8 WAT), NPK 15:15:15 treated plant had more flower abortion of 34.7 than the lowest flower abortion of 24.67 from the control plots. NPK 15:15:15 at 100 kgN/ha gave the highest fruit yield of 18.60 t/ha while the lowest yield (4.07 t/ha) was obtained from the control plots. Highest value of lycopene content of 2.65 % was found in plots supplied with NPK but is comparable with the control plot but higher than other sources. Potassium content of 20.80 % was lowest in NPK plots while potassium accumulation of 23.20% was highest in the control but not different statistically from each other. Sodium content had highest percentage in untreated plot with 0.43 % and sodium ion was lowest in NPK + organic treated plot which have the value of 0.31%.
Growth and Fruit Yield of Tomato As Influenced by Combined Use of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer in Kabba, Nigeria (Published)
Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of integrated use of chemical and organic fertilizers on growth and fruit yield of tomato in Kabba College of Agriculture. The experiment involved five treatments which are as follows: 125kh/ha NPK+3t/ha poultry manure, 125kg/ha NPK+3t/ha cow dung, 125kg/ha NPK+3t/ha kitchen waste, 125kg/ha NPK 15:15:15 and Control. The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated four times. The parameters taken on soil chemical properties are soil pH, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and soil organic matter. Growth and yield parameters taken are as follows: plant height (cm), number of leaves, and stem girth (cm), number of fruit per plant, fruit length (cm), fruit diameter (cm) and yield per land area (kg/ha). Result obtained from parameters studied (Plant height, leaf numbers, branch number, stem girth, fruit number per plant and fruits weight) revealed that tomato performed better (P<0.05) with the application of 125kg/ha NPK+3t/ha poultry manure application. The also, study showed that use of inorganic and organic fertilizer had better effects on growth and yield of tomato. Therefore, for good yield and better productivity of tomato, a combination of 125kg/ha NPK fertilizer + 3t/ha poultry waste is recommended for tomato production in the study area.