Foreign Exchange Management and the Nigerian Economic Growth (1960 – 2012). (Review Completed - Accepted)
The study examined foreign exchange management and the Nigeria economic growth from 1970 to 2012. The scope of the study is limited to Nigeria. The empirical model for the study was based on the conclusion of our theoretical framework. The data used for this study were majorly sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria Bulletin (2011). The ordinary least square estimation techniques within the error correction model (ECM) framework are employed in the study. The choice of the ECM is to enable it account for the explanatory potent of the regressions in both the short run and long run as well as ascertaining the dynamics of attaining long run equilibrium, an issue which is the key to studies related to macroeconomics variables one of which is the exchange rate. The Johansen-Joselius Co- Integration test is employed in this study, to test for the presence of a long run relationship between the dependent variable (exchange rate) and the independent variables. The result of the co-integration as revealed show that trace statistics and maximum Eigen values are greater than the critical values at 5% level of significance. It shows that there is a unique long run relationship among Y, EXCR, EXPT,IMP, INF and FDI. The result further shows that the explanatory variables explain and account for about 99% of variation in economics growth peroxide by GDP, which is an evidence of a good fit of the model. The f-statistics shows that the explanatory variables are jointly significant in explaining economic growth (dependent variable). The result above shows export and foreign direct investment are statistically significant in determining economic growth which considered at 5% and 10% respectively. However, exchange rate import and inflation are found to be statistically non-significant. It is against this back drop of the above findings, that it is recommended that effort be made to increase the consumption of made in Nigeria goods, which includes the usage of raw material that can be sourced locally by Nigerian industries in order to increase foreign exchange earnings. The implication of this is that local industries should be encouraged to look inward for their raw material. Having uncovered from the study that the nexus between economic growth and foreign exchange management being a short run relationship, it is necessary that the foreign exchange management policy initiatives be made to satisfy the shorts–run behavioral expectations of the variables used in uncovering this fact
In this paper, we employed multivariate econometric analysis approach to study the relationship between taxation and income inequality in Nigeria. The study was a country-specific approach using tax and macroeconomic data from 1980 to 2011. We collected data from the Central Bank of Nigeria Publications, Federal Inland Revenue Service, World Bank and Index Mundi. We estimated the data using a combination of co-integration and error correction model. Preliminary diagnostic analysis using Ramsey RESET test, Breuch-Pagan-Godfrey, Granger causality test and Breuch-Godfrey test of serial correlation were affected to check the accuracy of our model. The preliminary analysis where favourable with no cases of serial correlation, non-normality, bi-directional causality and model misspecification. We found a negative and robust relationship between total tax revenue, total tax revenue to GDP ratio and income inequality in Nigeria with t-values of (-2.748706) and (-2.287270) and negative coefficients of (-0.007869) and (-0.512235) respectively. We found a negative but insignificant relationship between GDPPC, PCREDIT/GDP, TDT/TIT*TTR while LFP and TDT/TIT had positive but insignificant relationship with income inequality with coefficients of (0.421) and (1.243794) and t-values of (1.732565) and (1.717362) respectively.