British Journal of Environmental Sciences (BJES)

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Risk Assessment of Drinkable Water from Hand-dug Reservoirs Using Gross Alpha and Beta Radioactivity Levels in Ogwashi-Uku, Delta State (Published)

Over the past decade, radioactivity in drinking water has become a matter of urgent concern following reports from various scientific researches. The rapid urbanization and increase in population of Ogwashi-Uku has culminated in the increase for demand of safe and potable water hence the need for this study. A total of 10 samples were collected from the study location. Standard methods for determination of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in the water samples were deployed. The measured gross alpha activity concentrations for all water samples are below 0.1 Bq/L while the measured gross beta activity concentrations in all water samples collected are lower than 1.0 Bq/L permissible limit. The mean annual dose equivalent in all the water samples for gross alpha and gross beta activity is lower than 0.1 mSv recommended dose for radionuclides in water, hence the life cancer risk assessment showed lower values, indicating the water is safe for drinking. The purpose of this study is to assess the concentration of gross alpha and beta activity levels of drinking water from hand-dug reservoirs in Ogwashi-Uku, Delta State in order to offer a scientific basis for making decisions regarding mitigating radioactive pollution and also to ensure the safety of drinking water and public health.

Keywords: Pollution, Radioactivity, Water, gross alpha, gross beta

Assessment of Health Risks Due to the Presence of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources the in Chingola District of the Copperbelt Province of Zambia (Published)

Water contamination is one of the issues preventing access to clean water. Waterbody poisoning with heavy metals is particularly concerning. This study aimed to ascertain the concentrations of heavy metals in the drinking water sources in the Chingola District of Zambia and assess the health risks based on carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic indices. The study was cross-sectional in design. In the dry season, water samples were obtained, and in the wet season, an equal number of water samples were collected. All the water samples from all sources were analysed for heavy metals with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP -MS) Mass spectrometer was used to analyse heavy metals. Nickel contents in numerous water sources exceeded the maximum allowable values of 0.0012 to 0.2144 mg/L. Each water sample had levels of chromium and cadmium below the detection threshold, except for three sampling sites. Drinking water from the tap, open well, shallow well, and borehole had differing median amounts of arsenic, copper, zinc, and nickel, and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Arsenic, copper, zinc, and nickel median concentrations varied between the dry and wet seasons, and this variation was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health indices (HI) were below the threshold values, though some individual sources may have shown levels beyond the upper limit of concentration.


Keywords: Heavy Metals, Pollution, carcinogenic health risk, drinking water, water sources

Quality of Water from Hand-Dug Wells in Nembe Town, Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the quality of water supply from hand-dug wells in Nembe town, Bayelsa State using sample survey design. Data was obtained from primary sources. To assess if the quality of groundwater supplied in Nembe town is safe for domestic and drinking purposes, the physico-chemical and microbial status of the groundwater were studied. Nembe town was stratified into ten neighbourhoods and a total of ten (10) hand dug well water samples was randomly collected from each of the sampled ten neighbourhoods and analyzed for twenty-one (21) paramaters in the month of November 2019. These samples were sent to the laboratory for physico-chemical and microbial analysis. The results of the study revealed that physico-chemical paramaters such as Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids(TSS), Sulphate (So4-2), Bicarbonate (HCo3-), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na), Manganese (Mn), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Iron (Fe), Chloride (CL), Nitrate (NO), Salinity, Total Alkalinity (TA) and Magnesium (Mg) are all within the permissible level of WHO and NESREA drinking water standards. Groundwater in the area have turbidity and potassium levels higher than the WHO and NESREA maximum permissible limits for drinking water standard. All the sampled hand dug wells have pH value within the permissible limit of drinking water except one which had pH value of 6.48 and considered too acidic for human consumption. Based on hardness, 70% of the groundwater samples are slightly hard water to hard water in nature. The result of the microbial analysis showed the presence of total coliforms, Total bacteria counts and fungi in all the hand dug wells. The ANOVA statistical tool was employed in testing the stated hypothesis and the results show that there is no significant spatial variation in the physico-chemical properties of water in the study area and that there is a significant spatial variation in the microbial properties of water in the study area. The result of the study was conclusive evidence that all the hand dug wells studied are not safe for domestic purpose especially for drinking as they were affected by some physico-chemical and biological parameters. Hence the affected wells call for periodic monitoring and treatment to improve the quality of the water.

Keywords: Pollution, Quality, Water, hand dug-wells

Variation of the Physico-Chemical Parameters, Nutrients and Some Selected Heavy Metals Around the Waters of the Tincan Island in Lagos, Nigeria (Published)

This study assessed the physico-chemical characteristics, concentration of heavy metals and nutrients composition of the surface water of Badagry and Tincan Island creeks adjoining the Lagos Lagoon. Sanplind was done once in a month between May and September 2019. The pH, Temperature, Salinity, Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Sulphate, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrate, Calcium, Copper, Iron, Zinc, Lead, Cadmium, Manganese, Chromium and Nickel were determined usuing statndard methods. there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the different parameters recocorded in the stations and the months. The DO (0.36 mg/L- 5.47mg/L) was lower than the WHO recommended 5mg/L for water quality assessment with a significant difference (p<0.05) recorded across the stations and months. The BOD values varied significantly across all the stations and the months with up to 211mg/L in station 1 in September thus depicting a severe deterioration of the creek. The concentrations of the heavy metals in the water samples were within the safe limit but posits potential human and fisheries health implications from continuous usage.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Nutrients, Pollution, creeks, physicochemical parameters

Impact of Industrial Effluents on Soil Quality of Sudan Savanna Alfisols in Semi-arid Tropical Zone of Nigeria (Published)

With increase in industrialization, threat of industrial pollution has been troubling the human world for many years causing environmental pollution including agricultural soils, which are adversely affected when untreated or partially treated industrial effluents are applied on them as irrigation amendments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrial effluents on the quality of soils irrigated with the effluents in Sharada industrial area by measuring different physico-chemical quality parameters. The soil samples were collected from three different phases of the industrial area and analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. Findings indicated that application of industrial effluents on soil caused changes in the physico-chemical profile of the soil with parameters like pH, organic carbon (OC) , nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), exchangeable sodium (Na) and potassium (K) recording mean values ranging from 6.6-7.2, 1.0-2.2%, 0.1-0.2%, 9.0- 14.0mg/Kg, 0.1-0.5Cmol/Kg and 0.6-0.7Cmol/Kg respectively. These values were different from the normal range of fertile and qualitative soil according to standards, and no significant differences were recorded among the sampling sites (P>0.05). Furthermore, the study revealed that the soil texture was sandy loam and loamy sand, while the cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) exchangeable calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) recorded mean values in the range of 4.6-6.8Cmol/Kg, 0.3-1.0dS/m, 1.6-3.7Cmol/Kg and 1.0-2.0Cmol/Kg in that order with significant variation among the sampling sites (P<0.05) indicating the moderate impact of industrial effluents on the soil quality. Overall, the research findings indicated that Sharada industrial effluents have impacted relatively on the soil quality of the surrounding soils in the area and their application should be discontinued for irrigation unless with careful monitoring and guarded improvement in the quality of the industrial wastewater as well as application of inorganic and organic amendments that will improve the fertility and quality of the soils of the study area.

Keywords: : Irrigation, Environment, Industrial Effluent, Pollution, Soil Quality

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